The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the UK’s largest independent producer of official statistics and is the recognized national statistical institute for the UK has compiled information of children (aged 0 to 14 years) diagnosed with cancer in England from 1990 to 2015, followed up to 31 December 2016. Dataset includes one year, five-years and 10 years age standardized survival percentage with 95% confidence interval.
Survival varies with age at diagnosis, and the age profile of patients can change over time. To enable comparison of overall survival in the age range 0 to 14 years over long periods of time, age-standardized estimates are calculated as a weighted sum of the age-specific survival estimates. For children, it is conventional to use equal weights for each of the 5-year age groups (0 to 4, 5 to 9 and 10 to 14 years), which is then equivalent to taking the simple arithmetic mean of the age-specific survival estimates.
1. Cohort analysis is a type of medical research used to investigate the causes of disease, establishing links between risk factors and health outcomes.
2. The period approach is used to produce short-term predictions of cancer survival for children diagnosed more recently by using the follow-up data differently. Period analysis deploys the survival experience of all cancer patients who are alive at some point during the most recent calendar period for which follow-up data are available.
3. The hybrid approach is used for short-term predictions when the follow-up data are more recent than the cancer incidence data. This method was used to estimate survival for children diagnosed in 2016.