This dataset is courtesy of Dr. John Schorling, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia School of Medicine. According to Dr. John Hong, Diabetes Mellitus Type II (adult-onset diabetes) is associated most strongly with obesity. The waist/hip ratio may be a predictor of diabetes and heart disease. DM II is also associated with hypertension – they may both be part of “Syndrome X”. The 403 subjects were the ones who were actually screened for diabetes. Glycosolated hemoglobin > 7.0 is usually taken as a positive diagnosis of diabetes.
This dataset came from two related studies conducted by Dr. John Schorling and colleagues. The first study was a community-based study on the prevalence of coronary heart disease risk factors among rural blacks. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors among a population-based sample of 403 rural blacks in Virginia. Rural blacks were the subjects of this study as CHD is the most common cause of mortality among blacks due to higher rates of CHD risk factors among them.
Methodology for this study included a community-based screening evaluation to determine the following CHD risk factors: exercise and smoking habits, blood pressure, height, weight, total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and glycosylated hemoglobin. Results from this study showed that prevalence of smoking, high cholesterol, and sedentary lifestyle was similar to prevalences reported for other black populations. Smoking was prevalent among 32.5% of men and 20.0% of women, high cholesterol was prevalent among 16.6% of men and 18.9% of women while sedentary lifestyle was prevalent among 37.5% of men and 66.7% of women. As for the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity, prevalence among these rural blacks was higher than other populations reported. Results showed that diabetes was prevalent among 13.6% of men and 15.6% of women, hypertension was prevalent among 30.9% of men and 43.1% of women while obesity was prevalent among 38.7% of men and 64.7% of women. It was reported that increased body mass index was significantly associated with higher prevalences of hypertension, diabetes, low HDL cholesterol, hence there is a need to decrease the CHD risk factors for this population.
The second study was a trial of church-based smoking cessation interventions for rural African Americans conducted by Dr. John Schorling and colleagues. This was done to address the health problems of the African-American in two rural counties in Virginia. To target the smoking behavior, a smoking cessation program was designed and implemented by church groups. This program combined one-on-one counseling with two counselors as well as self-help materials and community-wide activities. To measure the effectiveness of the intervention, respondents were recontacted after 18 months through a door-to-door survey to evaluate smoking cessation, stages of change and exposure to the intervention. After 18 months, results showed that the overall smoking prevalence decreased from 25.8% at baseline to 9.6% rate in the intervention county and 5.4% rate in the control county (P=0.18). Quit rates were 10.5% and 5.9% (P = 0.20) among those attending church once a month or more. It was concluded that smoking cessation interventions among African Americans can be successfully implemented through church coalition.