Genes Associated With Longevity or Aging In Model Organisms

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This dataset of genes associated with longevity or aging in model organisms is essentially a list of genes with one or a few key references, a brief description of the phenotype or effects of genetic manipulations of the gene, human homologues of the gene, and a few external links. For a gene to be featured, its association with aging and/or longevity must be unambiguous, and hence most genes were selected based on genetic manipulations and not mere correlations, such as a gene’s upregulation with age, in which causality is impossible to determine.

Complexity

This dataset comes from the GenAge (Genetic Aging) section of the Human Ageing Genomic Resources (HAGR) which is a repository containing information about the genetics of human aging. Information is obtained from modern approaches such as functional genomics, network analyses, systems biology and evolutionary analyses.

Gene in model organisms can be classified as follows:

Pro-longevity genes: genes whose decreased expression (due to knockout, mutations or RNA interference) reduces lifespan and/or whose overexpression extends lifespan.
Anti-longevity genes: those whose decreased expression extends lifespan and/or whose overexpression decreases it.
Necessary for fitness genes: given that inferring accelerated aging is problematic for yeast large-scale lifespan screens, yeast genes shortening lifespan in screens or for which a link to aging processes has not been observed have been annotated as necessary for fitness genes instead of pro-longevity genes.

In cases where conflicting results were observed, or the data were not sufficient to draw a definite conclusion, our policy is to keep all observation and annotate the genes as Unclear and Unannotated, respectively.

The human dataset in GenAge is a curated database of genes that may regulate human aging or that at least might be considerably associated with the human aging phenotype. It is a functional genomics database designed to provide up-to-date information in the context of aging and molecular genetics. Because the focus is on the fundamental aging process, what some authors call senescence, and not just age-related pathologies, the human dataset features primarily genes related to biological aging rather than genes that only affect longevity by having an impact on overall health.

This is an important point because longevity can be influenced by factors unrelated to aging, and the distinction is crucial, albeit often difficult. (For those interested in genes associated with human longevity, please refer to the LongevityMap). Likewise, a gene is differentially expressed during aging is not by itself proof that this gene is causally involved in the aging process. Nonetheless, for researchers studying transcriptional changes with age, also available are genes commonly differentially expressed during mammalian aging which were identified by performing a meta-analysis of aging microarray data.

Each gene in the human dataset was selected after an extensive review of the literature. They were identified genes associated with aging in model organisms as well as those that may directly modulate aging in mammals, including humans. Each gene was selected or excluded based on its association with aging in the different model systems, with priority being given to organisms biologically and evolutionary more closely related to humans. Because the focus is on the genetic basis of human aging, there was no in-depth description of aging in model systems but was rather incorporated in the information gathered from multiple models to gather clues about the genetics of human aging.

In each human gene entry, the main reason for inclusion in the database is given. The following criteria are used:

1. Evidence directly linking the gene product to aging in humans (human)
2. Evidence directly linking the gene product to aging in a mammalian model organism (mammal)
3. Evidence directly linking the gene product to aging in a non-mammalian model organism (model)
4. Evidence directly linking the gene product to aging in a cellular model system (cell)
5. Evidence linking the gene or its product to human longevity and/or multiple age-related phenotypes (human link)
6. Evidence directly linking the gene product to the regulation or control of genes previously linked to aging (upstream)
7. Evidence linking the gene product to a pathway or mechanism linked to aging (functional)
8. Evidence showing the gene product to act downstream of a pathway, mechanism, or other gene product linked to aging (downstream)
9. Indirect or inconclusive evidence linking the gene product to aging (putative)

GenAge has its limits but the aim is to include the most relevant information, but not all the data are available. The human dataset in GenAge can be helpful in more classical genetic studies of aging and longevity. For example, if a given chromosomal region is identified, it is possible to look up which genes are present in that region. Although GenAge is not a bibliographic database, the bibliographic references in the human dataset can be a useful resource.

Date Created

2013

Last Modified

2015-10-11

Version

2015-10-11

Update Frequency

Irregular

Temporal Coverage

N/A

Spatial Coverage

N/A

Source

John Snow Labs => Human Ageing Genomic Resources

Source License URL

John Snow Labs Standard License

Source License Requirements

N/A

Source Citation

Tacutu, R., Craig, T., Budovsky, A., Wuttke, D., Lehmann, G., Taranukha, D., Costa, J., Fraifeld, V. E., de Magalhaes, J. P. (2013) "Human Ageing Genomic Resources Integrated databases and tools for the biology and genetics of ageing." Nucleic Acids Research 41(D1)D1027-D1033. PubMed

Keywords

Genome Database, Gene Database, Genomics, Longevity Gene, Genetic Association, Aging, Longevity

Other Titles

Genome Database of Aging In Model Organisms, Gene Database of Aging In Model Organisms, Genetic Association in Longevity or Aging In Model Organisms

Name Description Type Constraints
GenAge_IDGenAge ID number given to the genes related to aging in human in this dataset.integerunique : 1 required : 1 level : Nominal
Gene_SymbolGene symbol of the gene associated with aging or gene studied. The official gene symbol approved by the HAGR.stringrequired : 1
Gene_NameThe recommended name used to officially represent a gene.string-
OrganismOrganism related to the gene in this study.stringrequired : 1
Entrez_Gene_IdGeneID is a unique identifier that is assigned to a gene record in Entrez Gene. Entry number with individual genes starting with single integer digits.integerlevel : Nominal
Average_Lifespan_Change_Maximum_ObservedThe average lifespan of the gene observednumberlevel : Ordinal
Lifespan_EffectThe lifespan of the gene and the effect of changes whether an increase or decreasestring-
Longevity_InfluenceThe response of the gene to changes whether pro or anti-longevitystringrequired : 1
GenAge_IDGene_SymbolGene_NameOrganismEntrez_Gene_IdAverage_Lifespan_Change_Maximum_ObservedLifespan_EffectLongevity_Influence
2173Mir29amicroRNA 29aMus musculus387222Unannotated
290FxnfrataxinMus musculus14297DecreasePro-Longevity
1814GrngranulinMus musculus14824DecreasePro-Longevity
90Casp2caspase 2Mus musculus12366DecreasePro-Longevity
1890AQR1Aqr1pSaccharomyces cerevisiae855660Unannotated
1891CYB5Cyb5pSaccharomyces cerevisiae855612Unannotated
1892NEW1New1pSaccharomyces cerevisiae855875Unannotated
1894SPP1Spp1pSaccharomyces cerevisiae855965Unannotated
92CatCatalaseMus musculus1235921.0IncreasePro-Longevity
2177Mir29b-1microRNA 29b-1Mus musculus387223Unannotated