The Questionnaire defines the questions to be asked, how they are ordered and grouped, any intervening instructional text and what the constraints are on the allowed answers. The results of a Questionnaire can be communicated using the Questionnaire Response resource.
Questionnaires cover the need to communicate data originating from forms used in medical history examinations, research questionnaires and sometimes full clinical specialty records. In many systems this data is collected using user-defined screens and forms. Questionnaires define specifics about data capture – exactly what questions were asked, in what order, what choices for answers were, etc. Each of these questions is part of the Questionnaire, and as such the Questionnaire is a separately identifiable Resource, whereas the individual questions are not.
Examples of Questionnaires include:
– Past medical history (PMH)
– Family diseases
– Social history
– Research questionnaires/Clinical research forms (CRFs)
– Quality and evaluation forms
– Patient intake form (e.g. clipboard)
– Forms to support insurance claims
This resource is limited in scope to support the characteristics of simple questionnaires. However, common extensions have been defined to allow more sophisticated behavior. This includes:
– Questionnaire core extensions which defines the additional descriptive characteristics for questionnaires and their groups and questions
– Element extensions which can describe additional constraints on allowed answers for questionnaires such as string length and date and numeric ranges
Questionnaires differ from Lists because Lists group existing resources, while Questionnaires group arbitrary questions. Questionnaire supports data-collection workflow to a limited extent, in that – once triggered – a Questionnaire can guide a user through a data collection process that ensures appropriate information is collected based on answers to particular questions. However, Questionnaire doesn’t provide support for capturing sets of information at different times or highly interactive data capture.