Anophelines Database in Africa

$79 / year

This dataset contains 13,465 unique survey locations where anophelines were sampled in the Afrotropical Region south of the Sahara from 1898 to 2016. This database is useful in understanding the distribution of anopheline vectors of malaria which is an important prelude in the designing of national malaria control and elimination programmes.

Complexity

This dataset presents an assembly of geocoded anopheline species data abstracted from survey reports published since 1900 across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and its offshore islands that have yet to eliminate malaria. The geocoded inventory of anopheline species in SSA covers over 13,000 locations and represents the most spatially comprehensive description of dominant and secondary malaria vectors in Africa to-date.

This dataset contains 13,331 unique, geocoded survey locations of anopheline vector occurrence between 1898 and 2016. A total of 12,204 (92%) sites reported the presence of 10 dominant vector species/sibling species; 4,473 (37%) of these sites were sampled since 2005. 4,442 (33%) sites reported at least one of 13 possible secondary vector species; 1,107 (25%) of these sites were sampled since 2005.

This is the largest ever geocoded database of anophelines in Africa, representing a legacy dataset for future updating and identification of knowledge gaps at national levels. The most recent geocoded inventory of anophelines in Africa focused only on dominant vectors, published and contemporary data sources.

The geocoded database is available on Harvard Dataverse as a reference source for African national malaria control programmes planning their future control and elimination strategies and original source materials have been provided to the Global Malaria Programme of the World Health Organization (WHO). These data are therefore available to every national malaria agency responsible for the future control or elimination of malaria across SSA. This dataset is also available to national academic counterparts to malaria programmes in SSA interested in vector species niche mapping. This information can be used to plan an effective control program.

The Vectors Database, which includes all the data that support the findings of this study, are available from the Kenyan Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) Wellcome Trust Research Programme’s Population Health Dataverse, http:// dx.doi.org/10.7910/DVN/NQ6CUN (Snow, 2017), under a CC-BY 4.0 license.

Date Created

2017-07-15

Last Modified

2017-07-19

Version

2017-07-19

Update Frequency

Never

Temporal Coverage

1898 to 2016

Spatial Coverage

Africa

Source

John Snow Labs => Harvard Dataverse, Population Health Dataverse

Source License URL

John Snow Labs Standard License

Source License Requirements

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)

Source Citation

Snow, Robert W. (Kenya Medical Research Institute-Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme, Nairobi, Kenya; 4. Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, UK).

Keywords

Malaria, Anopheline Vectors of Malaria, Anopheles Gambiae, Anophelines in Africa, Causes of Malaria, Malaria Parasite, Malaria Mosquito, Malaria in Africa, Malaria Vectors

Other Titles

Distribution of Anopheline Vectors of Malaria, Location of Anopheline Vectors in Africa, Africa Vectors Database:1898-2016, Database of Anophelines in Africa

NameDescriptionTypeConstraints
CountryThe country where geo-code and map malaria parasite and vector surveys were undertaken across Africa, south of the Sahara was geocodedstring-
Global_Administrative_Unit_Layers_1string-
Global_Administrative_Unit_Layers_2string-
Full_NameFull name of the municipality where geo-code and map malaria parasite and vector surveys were undertaken across Africa, south of the Sahara was geocodedstring-
LatitudeLatitude where geo-code and map malaria parasite and vector surveys were undertaken across Africa, south of the Sahara was geocoded-
LongitudeLongitude where geo-code and map malaria parasite and vector surveys were undertaken across Africa, south of the Sahara was geocoded-
Latitude_Longitude_SourceReported locations of vectors from published and unpublished sourcesstring-
Year_StartStart year when the occurrence of geocoded survey locations of the anopheline vector/s was/were recorded (1898)date-
Year_EndEnd year when the occurrence of geocoded survey locations of the anopheline vector/s was/were recorded (2016)date-
Is_Anopheles_Gambiae_ComplexIf vector is Anopheles gambiaeboolean-
Is_Anopheles_Gambiae_Sensu_StrictoIf vector is Anopheles gambiae senso strictoboolean-
Is_Anopheles_Colluzzi_or_Mopti_FormsIf Anopheles gambiae ss chromosomes are in M forms, Anopheles colluzi or Mopti formsboolean-
Is_Savanah_or_Bamako_FormsIf Anopheles gambiae ss chromosomes are in S form, Savanah or Bamako formsboolean-
Is_Anopheles_ArabiensisIf vector is Anopheles arabiensisboolean-
Is_Anopheles_MelasIf vector is Anopheles melasboolean-
Is_Anopheles_MerusIf vector is Anopheles merusboolean-
Is_Anopheles_BwambaeIf vector is Anopheles bwambaeboolean-
Is_Anopheles_Funestus_Sensu_LatoIf vector is Anopheles funestus sensu latoboolean-
Is_Anopheles_Funestus_Sensu_StrictoIf vector is Anopheles funestus sensu strictoboolean-
Is_Anopheles_RivulorumIf vector is Anopheles rivulorumboolean-
Is_Anopheles_LeesoniIf vector is Anopheles leesoniboolean-
Is_Anopheles_ParensisIf vector is Anopheles parensisboolean-
Is_Anopheles_VaneedeniIf vector is Anopheles vaneedeniboolean-
Is_Anopheles_Nili_Sensu_LatoIf vector is Anopheles nili sensu latoboolean-
Is_Anopheles_Moucheti_Sensu_LatoIf vector is Anopheles moucheti sensu latoboolean-
Is_Anopheles_PharoensisIf vector is Anopheles pharoensisboolean-
Is_Anopheles_HancockiIf vector is Anopheles hancockiboolean-
Is_Anopheles_MascarensisIf vector is Anopheles mascarensisboolean-
Is_Anopheles_MarshalliIf vector is Anopheles marshalliboolean-
Is_Anopheles_SquamousIf vector is Anopheles squamousboolean-
Is_Anopheles_WellcomeiIf vector is Anopheles wellcomeiboolean-
Is_Anopheles_RufipesIf vector is Anopheles rufipesboolean-
Is_Anopheles_Coustani_Sensu_LatoIf vector is Anopheles coustani sensu latoboolean-
Is_Anopheles_ZiemanniIf vector is Anopheles ziemanniboolean-
Is_Anopheles_PaludisIf vector is Anopheles paludisboolean-
Adults_LarvaeVector form if adults, larvae or unknownstring-
Sampling_MethodsSampling methods that include Animal Bait Catches (ABC), Bednet traps, CDC light traps, Human/Night Bait Catches (HBC/NBC) (may be within a double-sided net), Human Landing Catches (HLC), Night Bait Catches (NBC), Indoor resting (IR) (Often written as room searches, aspirators or hand catches indoors), Outdoor sampling (OS), Larval Collections (LC), Exit traps, Pyrethrum Spray Catches (PSC) and Ifakara Tent Traps (ITT)string-
Species_IdentificationSpecies identification methods that include Chromosome Banding Sequencing (CBS), DNA probes (DNA), Morphology (M), and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)string-
Other_Sib_Species_NamesOther species name identified from the locationsstring-
Other_Anopheline_SpeciesOther anopheline species recorded identified from the locationsstring-
Source_TitleSource title or bibliographies of identified sources of information that include publications and unpublished and published reportsstring-
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<p>Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) is an object storage service that offers industry-leading scalability data availability security and performance. This means customers of all sizes and industries can use it to store and protect any amount of data for a range of use cases such as websites mobile applications backup and restore archive enterprise applications IoT devices and big data analytics. Amazon S3 provides easy-to-use management features so you can organize your data and configure finely-tuned access controls to meet your specific business organizational and compliance requirements. Amazon S3 is designed for 99.999999999% (11 9's) of durability and stores data for millions of applications for companies all around the world.<br /> </p>
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<p>Scale your storage resources up and down to meet fluctuating demands without upfront investments or resource procurement cycles. Amazon S3 is designed for 99.999999999% (11 9’s) of data durability because it automatically creates and stores copies of all S3 objects across multiple systems. This means your data is available when needed and protected against failures errors and threats.<br /> <a href="/s3/faqs/#Durability_.26_Data_Protection" target="_blank">Learn about S3 data durability &raquo;</a></p>
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<p>Save costs without sacrificing performance by storing data across the <b>S3 Storage Classes</b> which support different data access levels at corresponding rates. You can use <b>S3 Storage Class Analysis</b> to discover data that should move to a lower-cost storage class based on access patterns and configure an <b>S3 Lifecycle</b> policy to execute the transfer. You can also store data with changing or unknown access patterns in <b>S3 Intelligent-Tiering</b> which tiers objects based on changing access patterns and automatically delivers cost savings.<br /> <a href="/s3/storage-classes/">Learn more about the S3 Storage Classes &raquo;</a></p>
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<p>Store your data in Amazon S3 and secure it from unauthorized access with encryption features and access management tools. You can also use <b>Amazon Macie</b> to identify sensitive data stored in your S3 buckets and detect irregular access requests. Amazon S3 maintains compliance programs such as PCI-DSS HIPAA/HITECH FedRAMP EU Data Protection Directive and FISMA to help you meet regulatory requirements. AWS also supports numerous auditing capabilities to monitor access requests to your S3 resources.<br /> Learn more about <a href="/s3/features/#Access_management_and_security">S3 security</a> and <a href="/compliance/">compliance &raquo;</a></p>
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<p>Classify manage and report on your data using features such as: <b>S3 Storage Class Analysis </b>to analyze access patterns; <b>S3 Lifecycle</b> policies to transfer objects to lower-cost storage classes; <b>S3 Cross-Region Replication</b> to replicate data into other regions; <b>S3 Object Lock </b>to apply retention dates to objects and protect them from deletion; and <b>S3 Inventory</b> to get visbility into your stored objects their metadata and encryption status. You can also use <b><a href="#How_it_works_.E2.80.94_S3_Batch_Operations_.28in_preview.29">S3 Batch Operations</a></b> to change object properties and perform storage management tasks for billions of objects. Since Amazon S3 works with <b>AWS Lambda</b> you can log activities define alerts and automate workflows without managing additional infrastructure.<br /> <a href="/s3/features/#Storage_management_and_monitoring"> Learn more about S3 storage management features &raquo;</a></p>
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<p>Run big data analytics across your S3 objects (and other data sets in AWS) with our query-in-place services. Use <b>Amazon Athena</b> to query S3 data with standard SQL expressions and <b>Amazon Redshift Spectrum</b> to analyze data that is stored across your AWS data warehouses and S3 resources. You can also use <b>S3 Select </b>to retrieve subsets of object metadata instead of the entire object and improve query performance by up to 400%.<br /> <a href="/s3/features/#Query_in_place">Learn more about query in place &raquo;</a></p>
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<p>Store and protect your data in Amazon S3 by working with a partner from the <b>AWS Partner Network (APN)</b> — the largest community of technology and consulting cloud services providers. The APN recognizes migration partners that transfer data to Amazon S3 and storage partners that offer S3-integrated solutions for primary storage backup and restore archive and disaster recovery. You can also purchase an AWS-integrated solution directly from the <b>AWS Marketplace</b> which lists over 250 storage-specific offerings.<a href="/backup-recovery/partner-solutions/"><br /> Learn about the APN</a> and<a href="https://aws.amazon.com/marketplace"> AWS Marketplace &raquo;</a></p>
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<p><b><a name="preview"></a>S3 Batch Operations</b> lets you manage billions of objects at scale with just a few clicks in the Amazon S3 Management Console or a single API request. With S3 Batch Operations you can make changes to object metadata and properties or perform other storage management tasks such as copying objects between buckets replacing object tag sets modifying access controls and restoring archived objects from S3 Glacier&nbsp;— instead of taking months to develop custom applications to perform these tasks.</p>
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<p>Build scalable durable and secure backup and restore solutions with Amazon S3 and other AWS services such as <b>S3 Glacier</b> <b>Amazon EFS</b> and <b>Amazon EBS</b> to augment or replace existing on-premises capabilities. AWS and APN partners can help you meet Recovery Time Objectives (RTO) Recovery Point Objectives (RPO) and compliance requirements. With AWS you can back up data already in the AWS Cloud or use<b> AWS Storage Gateway</b> a hybrid storage service to send backups of on-premises data to AWS.<br /> <a href="/backup-restore/">Learn more about backup and restore &raquo;</a></p>
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<p>Protect critical data applications and IT systems that are running in the AWS Cloud or in your on-premises environment without incurring the expense of a second physical site. With Amazon S3 storage <b>S3 Cross-Region Replication</b> and other AWS compute networking and database services you can create DR architectures in order to quickly and easily recover from outages caused by natural disasters system failures and human errors.<a href="/disaster-recovery/"><br /> Learn more about DR &raquo;</a></p>
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<p>Retire physical infrastructure and archive data with <b>S3 Glacier</b> and <b>S3 Glacier Deep Archive</b> (<a href="/about-aws/whats-new/2018/11/s3-glacier-deep-archive/" target="_blank">coming soon</a>). These S3 Storage Classes retain objects long-term at the lowest rates. Simply create an S3 Lifecycle policy to archive objects throughout their lifecycles or upload objects directly to the archival storage classes. With <b>S3 Object Lock</b> you can apply retention dates to objects to protect them from deletions and meet compliance requirements. Unlike tape libraries S3 Glacier lets you restore archived objects in as little as one minute for expedited retrievals and 3-5 hours for standard retrievals. Bulk data restores from S3 Glacier and all restores from S3 Glacier Deep Archive are completed within 12 hours.<a href="/glacier/"><br /> Learn more about archiving &raquo;</a></p>
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<p>Accelerate innovation by creating a data lake in Amazon S3 and extract valuable insights using query-in-place analytics and machine learning tools. You can also use <b>AWS Lake Formation </b>to quickly create a data lake and centrally define and enforce security governance and auditing policies. The service collects data across your databases and S3 resources moves it into a new data lake in Amazon S3 and cleans and classifies it using machine learning algorithms. All AWS resources can be scaled up to accommodate your expanding data stores&nbsp;— without upfront investments.<br /> Learn more about <a href="/big-data/datalakes-and-analytics/">data lakes</a> and <a href="/lake-formation/">AWS Lake Formation &raquo;</a></p>
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<p>Create a seamless connection between on-premises applications and Amazon S3 with <b>AWS Storage Gateway</b> in order to reduce your data center footprint and leverage the scale reliability and durability of AWS as well as AWS’ innovative machine learning and analytics capabilities. You can also automate data transfers between on-premises storage and Amazon S3 by using <b>AWS DataSync</b> which can transfer data at speeds up to 10 times faster than open-source tools. Another way to enable a hybrid cloud storage environment is to work with a gateway provider from the APN. You can also transfer files directly into and out of Amazon S3 with<b> AWS Transfer for SFTP </b>— a fully managed service that enables secure file exchanges with third parties.<br /> Learn more about <a href="/storagegateway/">hybrid storage</a> <a href="/datasync/">AWS DataSync</a> and <a href="/sftp/">AWS Transfer for SFTP &raquo;</a>&nbsp;<br /> </p>
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<p>Build fast cost-effective mobile and Internet-based applications by using AWS services and Amazon S3 to store production data. With Amazon S3 you can upload any amount of data and access it anywhere in order to deploy applications faster and reach more end users. Storing data in Amazon S3 also means you have access to the latest AWS developer tools and services for machine learning and analytics to innovate and optimize your cloud-native applications.<br /> <a href="/products/developer-tools/">Learn more about cloud-native applications &raquo;</a></p>
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<a href="/solutions/case-studies/netflix/"><img alt="Netflix" title="Netflix" src="//d1.awsstatic.com/Industries/Telecom/600x400_Netflix-Logo.3bfbc7a6fa28b81d2e46ca48d3ff71b781abc0ce.png" /></a>
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Netflix delivers billions of hours of content from Amazon S3 to customers around the world. Amazon S3 also serves as the data lake for their big data analytics solution.
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<a href="/solutions/case-studies/finra/"><img alt="FINRA" title="FINRA" src="//d1.awsstatic.com/product-marketing/AI/customers/Approved_Logos_600x4001/600x400_FINRA.3cba6a9ca0d18b7a45c036dd7c9e2f34d309b8c3.png" /></a>
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FINRA uses Amazon S3 to ingest and store data for over 75 billion market events daily and AWS Lambda functions to format and validate the data against more than 200 rules.
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Airbnb houses backup data and static files on Amazon S3 including over 10 petabytes of user pictures. As a born-in-the-cloud solution they continually innovate new ways to analyze data stored on Amazon S3.
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<a href="/solutions/case-studies/ge-healthcare/"><img alt="GE Healthcare" title="GE Healthcare" src="//d1.awsstatic.com/product-marketing/AI/customers/Case%20Studies%20Page/600X400_GE-Healthcare_Logo.7dd29d40cf5fe1cc9f3a0cc0aedbcb54528a4fe2.png" /></a>
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GE uses Amazon S3 to store and protect a petabyte of critical medical imaging data for its GE Health Cloud service which connects hundreds of thousands of imaging machines and other medical devices.
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<p><b>WHAT'S NEW</b><br /> <i>Coming Soon&nbsp;— S3 Glacier Deep Archive for Long-Term Data Retention</i><br /> 28 NOV 2018<br /> </p>
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<p><b>AWS NEWS BLOG<br /> </b><i>New&nbsp;— Automatic Cost Optimization for Amazon S3 via Intelligent Tiering</i><br /> by Jeff Barr | 26 NOV 2018<br /> </p>
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<a href="https://aws.amazon.com/blogs/aws/new-automatic-cost-optimization-for-amazon-s3-via-intelligent-tiering/" target="_blank">Learn more &raquo;</a>
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<p><b>WHAT'S NEW<br /> </b><i>Amazon S3 Introduces S3 Batch Operations for Object Management</i><br /> 26 NOV 2018<br /> </p>
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<a href="/about-aws/whats-new/2018/11/s3-batch-operations/" target="_blank">Learn more &raquo;</a>
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<p><b>WHAT'S NEW</b><br /> <i>AWS Announces Amazon S3 Object Lock in all AWS Regions</i><br /> 26 NOV 2018<br /> </p>
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<a href="/about-aws/whats-new/2018/11/s3-object-lock/" target="_blank">Learn more &raquo;</a>
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<p><b>AWS ARCHITECTURE BLOG</b><br /> <i>S3 &amp; S3 Glacier Launch Announcements for Archival Workloads</i><br /> by Matt Sidley | 26 NOV 2018<br /> </p>
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<p><b>NEWS BLOG</b><br /> <i> Amazon S3 Block Public Access — Another Layer of Protection for Your Accounts and Buckets</i><br /> 16 NOV 2018<br /> </p>
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