MEDLINE PubMed Journal Citation Database

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This dataset contains NLM’s database of citations and abstracts in the fields of medicine, nursing, dentistry, veterinary medicine, health care systems, and preclinical sciences.


MEDLINE is the U.S. National Library of Medicine® (NLM) premier bibliographic database that contains more than 23 million references to journal articles in life sciences with a concentration on biomedicine. A distinctive feature of MEDLINE is that the records are indexed with NLM Medical Subject Headings (MeSH®)

The subject scope of MEDLINE is biomedicine and health, broadly defined to encompass those areas of the life sciences, behavioral sciences, chemical sciences, and bioengineering needed by health professionals and others engaged in basic research and clinical care, public health, health policy development, or related educational activities. MEDLINE also covers life sciences vital to biomedical practitioners, researchers, and educators, including aspects of biology, environmental science, marine biology, plant and animal science as well as biophysics and chemistry. Publishers submit journals to an NIH-chartered advisory committee, the Literature Selection Technical Review Committee (LSTRC), which reviews and recommends journals for MEDLINE. The LSTRC considers the quality of the scientific content of a journal, including originality and the importance of the content for the MEDLINE global audience, using the guidelines found on the NLM Fact Sheet MEDLINE Journal Selection.

MEDLINE is the primary component of PubMed®, part of the Entrez series of databases provided by the NLM National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). In addition to MEDLINE citations, PubMed also contains:
– In-process citations that provide a record for an article before it is indexed with MeSH® and added to MEDLINE or converted to out-of-scope status.
– Citations that precede the date that a journal was selected for MEDLINE indexing.
– Some OLDMEDLINE citations that have not yet been updated with current vocabulary and converted to MEDLINE status.
– Citations to articles that are out-of-scope (e.g., covering plate tectonics or astrophysics) from certain MEDLINE journals, primarily general science and general chemistry journals, for which the life sciences articles are indexed with MeSH for MEDLINE.
– Citations to some additional life science journals that submit full-text articles to PMC® (PubMed Central®) and receive a qualitative review by NLM.
– Citations for the majority of books and book chapters available on the NCBI Bookshelf.

MedlineCitation Status attribute

1. In-Data-Review
Records submitted to NLM electronically by publishers are added to PubMed at NLM and given in In-Data-Review status. Records in this status have undergone review at the journal issue level; i.e., the journal title, date of publication and volume/issue elements (referred to as the source data) are checked. They are not yet MEDLINE records because they have not undergone complete quality review and MeSH indexing; thus they should not be identified as MEDLINE records.

2. In-Process
Records in this status have undergone a citation level review; i.e., the author names, article title, and pagination are checked. All In-Data-Review records that entered the workflow via publisher electronic submission are redistributed again in In-Process status whether or not they were revised as a result of the second citation level review, and are not identified in any way as having been revised or not having been revised. Records created via NLM current other data entry mechanism, scanning/optical character recognition (OCR), are distributed for the first time in In-Process status after their creation. They are not yet MEDLINE records because they have not undergone complete quality review and MeSH indexing; thus they should not be identified as MEDLINE records. Most in-process records are eventually indexed with MeSH Headings and are elevated to completed MEDLINE status. However, some are determined to be out of scope (e.g., articles on plate tectonics or astrophysics from certain MEDLINE journals, primarily general science and chemistry journals, for which the life sciences articles are indexed for MEDLINE) and are not elevated to MEDLINE status; instead they become PubMed-not-Medline final status records. In rare cases the records are deleted and do not become PubMed-not-MEDLINE records.

In-process records undergo rigorous quality assurance routines before they are elevated to MEDLINE status or to PubMed-not-MEDLINE status. Records in MEDLINE status are the only ‘true’ MEDLINE records .

A small percentage of the records in the OLDMEDLINE subset are in MedlineCitation Status = OLDMEDLINE. The criterion for records to be in OLDMEDLINE status is that all the original MeSH Headings have not yet been mapped to current MeSH. NLM exports both new and revised OLDMEDLINE records on an irregular and infrequent basis.

5. PubMed-not-MEDLINE
Records in this status are from journals included in MEDLINE and have undergone quality review but are not assigned MeSH headings because the cited item is not in scope for MEDLINE either by topic or by date of publication, or from non-MEDLINE journals and have undergone quality review.

6. Publisher
Records in Publisher status are not distributed via bulk download. At this time approximately 98% of PubMed’s content is distributed via bulk download. At any given time, there are between 400,000 to 500,000 additional records in Publisher MedlineCitation Status in PubMed. These are citations to author manuscripts of articles published by NIH-funded researchers and citations to books in the NCBI Bookshelf etc.

Citation Subset
The values and their definitions for Citation Subset are as follows. Note that several are closed subsets no longer being assigned.
AIM = citations from Abridged Index Medicus journals, a list of about 120 core clinical, English language journals.
B = citations from non-Index Medicus journals in the field of biotechnology (not currently used).
C = citations from non-Index Medicus journals in the field of communication disorders (not currently used).
D = citations from dental journals.
E = citations in the field of bioethics (includes records from the former BIOETHICS database).
F = older citations from one journal prior to its selection for Index Medicus; used to augment the database for NLM International MEDLARS Centers (not currently used).
H = citations from non-Index Medicus journals in the field of health administration (includes records from the former HealthSTAR database).
IM = citations from Index Medicus journals.
J = citations in the field of population information (not currently used; on records from the former POPLINE® database).
K = citations from non-Index Medicus journals relating to consumer health.
N = citations from nursing journals.
OM = pre-1966 citations from the older print indices of the Cumulated Index Medicus (CIM) and the Current List of Medical Literature (CLML).
Q = citations in the field of the history of medicine (includes records from the former HISTLINE® database).
QIS = citations from non-Index Medicus journals in the field of the history of medicine. (For NLM use effective in late 2006 because they require special handling at NLM; not a subset of Q; some journals previously designated as Q are now QIS.)
QO is subset of Q – indicates older history of medicine journal citations that were created before the former HISTLINE file was converted to a MEDLINE-like format. (For NLM use because they require special handling at NLM.)
R = citations from non-Index Medicus journals in the field of population and reproduction (not currently used).
S = citations in the field of space life sciences (includes records from the former SPACELINE™ database).
T = citations from non-Index Medicus journals in the field of health technology assessment (includes records from the former HealthSTAR database).
X = citations in the field of AIDS/HIV (includes records from the former AIDSLINE® database).

Date Created


Last Modified




Update Frequency


Temporal Coverage

1946 to 2018

Spatial Coverage



John Snow Labs; National Library of Medicine (NLM);

Source License URL

Source License Requirements


Source Citation



Pubmed Journals, NCBI Pubmed, Medline Search, Pubmed Citation, Medline Articles, MESH Terminology

Other Titles

Entres Pubmed, Pubmed Research Papers, MEDLINE/PubMed Data, MEDLINE/PubMed Baseline, MEDLINE/PubMed XML

PubMed_IDThe PubMed unique identifier, is a 1 to 8-digit accession number with no leading zeros.integerrequired : 1 level : Nominal
PubMed_VersionUsed to accommodate the model of publishing known as "versioning"integerrequired : 1 level : Interval
Citation_StatusIndicates the stage of a citation.stringrequired : 1 enum : Array
Citation_OwnerIndicates the The party responsible for creating and validating the citation. Each citation has only one MedlineCitation Ownerstringrequired : 1 enum : Array
Citation_VersionIDUsed with “versioned” citationsintegerlevel : Interval
Citation_Version_DateUsed with “versioned” citationsdate-
Citation_Indexing_MethodIndexing method used for citationstring-
Citation_Record_Completed_DateDate processing of the record ends i.e., MeSH Headings have been added, quality assurance validations are completed, and the completed record subsequently is distributed to
Citation_Record_Revised_DateMay reside on records with Status = MEDLINE, OLDMEDLINE, and PubMed-not-MEDLINE. It identifies the date a change is made to a record in one of those statuses, either as a result of individual or global
Citation_Other_SourceIDidentifies a.) the organization responsible for the information on the citation or the document where the information originated, and b.) a unique number for that citation or document.string-
Citation_Other_Abstract_TextIndicates the abstract created by a collaborating partner or other entitystring-
Citation_Other_Abstract_Text_TypeType of Other Abstractstring-
Citation_Other_Abstract_Text_LanguageIndicate on behalf of publishers that there are additional abstracts available at the publishers' Web sites or elsewhere.string-
Citation_Other_Abstract_Text_Copyright_InfoIndicate copyright statement provided by the publisher of the journalstring-
Citation_Mesh_Headings_ListNLM controlled vocabulary, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH®), is used to characterize the content of the articles represented by MEDLINE citationsstring-
Citation_Chemical_Drug_ListContains one or more chemicals or drugs,which are displayed as registry number and name of substance.string-
Citation_Protocol_Disease_ListIndicates Protocol Class 2 Supplementary Concept Record (SCR) terms and Disease Class 3 SCR termsstring-
Citation_Keywords_ListContains controlled terms that describe the content of the article.string-
Citation_Number_Of_ReferencesContains the number of bibliographic references listed in the article.integerlevel : Ratio
Citation_Subsetidentifies the subset for which MEDLINE records from certain journal lists or records on specialized topics were created. Some of these values are found on extremely small numbers of records.string-
Citation_Comments_CorrectionsThese data pertain to and contain citations to associated journal publications, e.g., comments, errata, retractions, or cited references, and enable outside links between the record at hand to its associated citation(s).string-
Citation_Gene_Symbol_ListContains the "symbol" or abbreviated form of gene names as reported in the literature.string-
Citation_Personal_Name_Subject_ListUsed for citations that contain a biographical note or obituary, or are entirely about the life or work of an individual or individuals.string-
Citation_Space_Flight_MissionContains the space flight mission name and/or number when results of research conducted in space are covered in a publication.string-
Citation_Investigator_ListContain personal names of individuals (e.g., collaborators and investigators) who are not authors of a paper but rather are listed in the paper as members of a collective/corporate group that is an author of the paper.string-
Citation_General_NoteContains supplemental or descriptive information related to the document cited in the MEDLINE record. It is a 'catchall' for various types of information included by NLM collaborating producers or by NLM.string-
Citation_Conflict_Of_Interest_StatementConflict of interest statementstring-
Journal_ISSNISSN (International Standard Serial Number) is always an eight-character value that uniquely identifies the cited journal. It is nine characters long in the hyphenated form: XXXX-XXXX.string-
Journal_ISSN_TypeIndicates which of the ISSNs assigned to the journal is recorded in the citation.stringenum : Array
Journal_TitleThe full journal titlestringrequired : 1
Journal_Title_ISO_AbbreviationISO Abbreviations are constructed at NLM to assist NCBI in linking from GenBank to PubMed. ISO Abbreviations created after 2007 are identical to the NLM title abbreviations.string-
Journal_Cited_MediumIndicates whether a citation is processed/indexed at NLM from the online or the print version of the journal.stringenum : Array
Journal_Volume_IssueThe volume number and the issue (part or supplement) of the journal in which the article was published.string-
Journal_Published_DateContains the full date on which the issue of the journal was publishedstring-
Journal_Published_CountryContains the place of publication of the journal.string-
Journal_Title_Standard_AbbreviationContains the standard abbreviation for the title of the journal in which an article appeared.string-
Journal_NLM_IDIt may appear as seven, eight or nine charcaters and is the preferred element to use when looking for the serial record for the journal in which the article was published.stringrequired : 1
Journal_ISSN_LinkingContains the ISSN designated by the ISSN Network to enable co-location or linking among the different media versions of a continuing resourcestring-
Article_TitleContains the entire title of the journal article.It is always in English; those titles originally published in a non-English language and translated are enclosed in square brackets.string-
Article_AuthorsContains the Personal and collective (corporate) author names published with the article.It includes author's lastname, forename, suffix, collective (corporate) names and affliation informationstring-
Article_LanguageContains the The language in which an article was published.stringrequired : 1
Article_Publish_ModelIdentify the medium/media in which the cited article is published.stringrequired : 1 enum : Array
Article_Abstract_TextEnglish-language abstracts taken directly from the published article. Abstracts in records may be truncated.string-
Article_Abstract_Text_Copyright_InfoContains a copyright statement provided by the publisher of the journal and appears only on records supplied electronically to NLM by the publisher.string-
Article_Publication_TypesIt identifies the type of article indexed for MEDLINE; it characterizes the nature of the information or the manner in which it is conveyed as well as the type of research support received (e.g., Review, Letter, Retracted Publication, Clinical Conference, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural).stringrequired : 1
Article_PaginationIndicates the inclusive pages for the article cited.string-
Article_ELocationIDProvides an electronic location for items which lack standard page numbers. The element houses Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) or Publisher Item Identifiers (PIIs) that are provided by publishers for new citations submitted to NLM for inclusion in MEDLINE/PubMed.string-
Article_DataBank_ListContains information pertaining to the registration of several types of data: 1) molecular sequence data; 2) clinical trial numbers; 3) gene expression/molecular abundance data; 4) PubChem identifiers; 5)Two general research databanks, the Dryad Digital Repository and figshare; and 6) BioProject identifiers.string-
Article_Grant_ListContains following information 1) research grant or contract number 2) grant acronym 3) institute acronym followed by the agency's hierarchical structure from lower to higher entity or agency name 4) country of the granting agencystring-
Article_Vernacular_TitleUsed for articles published in non-English languages and contains the original, untranslated title.string-
Article_Electronic_Published_DateContains the date the publisher made an electronic version of the articledate-
PubMed_HistoryChanges in the pubmed records, along with the status and the dates when it was changedstring-
PubMed_Publication_StatusPublication status of the recordstring-
PubMed_ArticleID_ListList of article ids and typesstring-
306475591PubMed-not-MEDLINENLM2019-01-161650-3414PrintEJIFCCEJIFCCPrint12;22000-MayItalyEJIFCC1010927421650-3414IFCC News.engElectronic-eCollectionD016433 News64-66entrez 2019-1-17 6:0epublishpubmed 30647559
306433371In-Data-ReviewNLM2019-01-150026-6620PrintMissouri medicineMo MedInternet115;6United StatesMo Med04007440026-6620Clarification.engPrintD016428 Journal Article517entrez 2019-1-16 6:0ppublishpubmed 30643337
306433361In-Data-ReviewNLM2019-01-150026-6620PrintMissouri medicineMo MedInternet115;6United StatesMo Med04007440026-6620Missouri Medicine in the News.engPrintD016433 News516entrez 2019-1-16 6:0ppublishpubmed 30643336
306433461In-Data-ReviewNLM2019-01-150026-6620PrintMissouri medicineMo MedInternet115;6United StatesMo Med04007440026-6620One Picture = 1,000 Words.engPrintD016428 Journal Article526entrez 2019-1-16 6:0ppublishpubmed 30643346
306433511In-Data-ReviewNLM2019-01-150026-6620PrintMissouri medicineMo MedInternet115;6United StatesMo Med04007440026-6620Member Services Information.engPrintD016428 Journal Article552entrez 2019-1-16 6:0ppublishpubmed 30643351
306433281In-Data-ReviewNLM2019-01-150026-6620PrintMissouri medicineMo MedInternet115;6United StatesMo Med04007440026-6620Greet Your Physician Legislators.engPrintD016428 Journal Article497entrez 2019-1-16 6:0ppublishpubmed 30643328
306671961PublisherNLM2019-01-220030-0993PrintOhio nurses reviewOhio Nurses RevPrint91;2United StatesOhio Nurses Rev19330290R0030-0993Zika Virus Disease Q&A.engPrintD016428 Journal Article12-3entrez 2019-1-23 6:0ppublishpubmed 30667196
306266411In-Data-ReviewNLM2019-01-101943-2631ElectronicGeneticsGeneticsInternet211;12019-JanUnited StatesGenetics03746360016-6731ISSUE HIGHLIGHTS.engPrintD016428 Journal ArticleNPentrez 2019-1-11 6:0ppublishpubmed 30626641;pii 211/1/NP
305497781PubMed-not-MEDLINENLM2018-12-140954-7762PrintNursing timesNurs TimesPrint112;27-282016-AugEnglandNurs Times04232360954-7762The heart of the hospital.engPrintD016428 Journal Article24-27entrez 2018-12-15 6:0ppublishpubmed 30549778
305388961PubMed-not-MEDLINENLM2018-12-122156-4647ElectronicJournal of radiosurgery and SBRTJ Radiosurg SBRTInternet5;42018United StatesJ Radiosurg SBRT101565296Society News.engPrintD016433 News341entrez 2018-12-13 6:0ppublishpubmed 30538896
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