NARMS Human Isolate Data

$79 / year

The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) Human Isolate Data makes it easier and quicker to find out how antibiotic resistance has changed over the past 20 years for four bacteria transmitted commonly through food—Campylobacter, E. coli O157, Salmonella, and Shigella.

Complexity

The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System for Enteric Bacteria (NARMS) was established in 1996. NARMS is a collaboration between state and local public health departments, CDC (Centers of Disease Control and Prevention), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). This national public health surveillance system tracks changes in the antimicrobial susceptibility of certain enteric (intestinal) bacteria found in ill people (CDC), retail meats (FDA), and food animals (USDA) in the United States. The NARMS program at CDC helps protect public health by providing information about emerging bacterial resistance, the ways in which resistance is spread, and how resistant infections differ from susceptible infections.

NARMS monitors antibiotic resistance among the following four major foodborne bacteria.

Salmonella:
Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica is widely dispersed in nature. It can be found in intestinal tracts of vertebrates including wildlife, livestock, domestic pets, and also in environmental sources such as pond water. It is spread through the fecal oral route and through contact with contaminated foods. An estimated 1.2 million people get sick from Salmonella infection in the United States each year. Of these, about 23,000 are hospitalized, and 450 die from their infections. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, fever, headache generally lasting 4 to 7 days with acute symptoms lasting 1-2 days. Serious disease can develop in the very young, the elderly and the immunocompromised. Fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins are used as first-line therapies for the treatment of serious Salmonella infection in adults. Cephalosporins are recommended for the treatment of pediatric infections.

Campylobacter:
Campylobacter is part of the natural gut flora of most food-producing animals such as chickens, turkeys, swine, cattle and sheep. It is estimated to cause over 1.3 million illnesses and 76 deaths in the United States each year. More than 80% of Campylobacter infections are caused by C. jejuni. However, other Campylobacter species, such as C. coli and C. fetus can cause disease in humans. C. coli and C. jejuni cause similar disease symptoms including fever, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and vomiting lasting anywhere from 2 to 10 days. Most cases of Campylobacter gastroenteritis are self-limited and typically, antibiotic therapy is not needed. When antibiotic therapy is indicated, macrolides and fluoroquinolones are most commonly prescribed. Major food sources linked to C. jejuni infections include improperly handled or undercooked poultry products, raw milk and cheeses made from raw milk, and contaminated water.

Escherichia coli
Escherichia coli Escherichia coli is one of the predominant enteric species in the normal intestinal flora of vertebrates. However, some serotypes of E. coli can cause severe diarrheal diseases in humans. One of these pathogenic strains is E. coli O157, which is monitored for antibiotic resistance by CDC in the human population. More information can be found on the CDC website. USDA and FDA monitor resistance among generic (non-serotyped) E. coli from food animals and retail meats. Generic E. coli are used by NARMS as an indicator organism to detect both emerging resistance patterns and specific resistance genes that could potentially be transferred to other pathogenic gram-negative bacteria, like Salmonella.

Enterococcus
Enterococcus is ubiquitous in nature and can be found in the gastrointestinal tracts, genitourinary tracts, oral cavities, and skin of humans and animals, as well as in insects, plants, soil, and water. Enterococcus is the only gram-positive organism that NARMS routinely monitors. Because it is consistently present in both types of meat and food animals, NARMS uses Enterococcus as an indicator organism to track resistance to antibiotics with activity against gram-positive organisms that may result from antimicrobial use. Enterococcus infection is notable largely as a hospital or community-acquired illness, and not much information is known about its role as a direct cause of foodborne illness. However, it is known that poorly processed meat and milk are among the foods that can transmit it.

Date Created

1996

Last Modified

2016-05-15

Version

2016-05-15

Update Frequency

Annual

Temporal Coverage

1996 - 2013

Spatial Coverage

United States

Source

John Snow Labs => Centers of Disease Control and Prevention(CDC), U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)

Source License URL

John Snow Labs Standard License

Source License Requirements

N/A

Source Citation

N/A

Keywords

Human PBMC, Ficoll Separation, Centrifuged Blood, Peripheral Mononuclear, Human Antibiotics, Antibacterial Resistance, Antimicrobial Medicines, Anti Microbial Drugs, Human Isolates, Antimicrobial Resistance

Other Titles

Human PBMC Isolate Data, Human Isolate Data Ficoll Separation, Human Isolate Data Centrifuged Blood, Peripheral Mononuclear Human Isolate Data

Name Description Type Constraints
Genus_of_Bacterial_IsolateValue: Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shigella, Escherichiastring-
Species_of_Bacterial_IsolateSpecies of the bacterial isolate. This is usually based on what the submitting laboratory reported, but may be updated if identification is performed at CDC and a different species result is obtained. Species is confirmed at CDC for all Campylobacter submitted for NARMS surveillance.string-
Serotype_of_Bacterial_IsolateSerotype of the bacterial isolate. This is usually based on what the submitting laboratory reported, but may be updated if identification is performed at CDC and a different serotype result is obtained.string-
Data_Year_of_the_Bacterial_Isolate_SubmissionData Yeardate-
Region_NameHHS (Health & Human Services) Region is the geographic location for the state that submitted the isolate to NARMS.string-
Age_GroupAge category (in years: 0-4, 5-9, 10-19, 20-29, 30- 39, 40- 49, 50- 59, 60- 69, 70- 79, 80+)string-
Specimen_SourceType of specimen from which the isolate was obtained (i.e. blood or stool)string-
Resistance_PatternAntibiotics that were found to be resistant for the isolate; otherwise, will read "No resistance detected"string-
Amikacin_Equivalence_OperatorEquivalence operator on the test result for Amikacinstring-
Amikacin_Resultnumberlevel : Ratio
Amikacin_ConclusionValue: S,I,R,Xstring-
Ampicillin_Equivalence_OperatorAMP (or A in Resistance Pattern). Equivalence operator on the test result for Ampicillinstring-
Ampicillin_Resultintegerlevel : Ratio
Ampicillin_ConclusionValue: S,I,R,Xstring-
Aztreonam_Equivalence_OperatorEquivalence operator on the test result for Aztreonamstring-
Aztreonam_Resultnumberlevel : Ratio
Aztreonam_ConclusionValue: S,I,R,Xstring-
Amoxicillin_Clavulanic_Acid_Equivalence_OperatorAUG (or Au in Resistance Pattern). Equivalence operator on the test result for Amoxicillin-clavulanic acidstring-
Amoxicillin_Clavulanic_Acid_Resultnumberlevel : Ratio
Amoxicillin_Clavulanic_Acid_ConclusionValue: S,I,R,Xstring-
Ceftriaxone_Equivalence_OperatorAXO (or Cx in Resistance Pattern). Equivalence operator on the test result for Ceftriaxonestring-
Ceftriaxone_Resultnumberlevel : Ratio
Ceftriaxone_ConclusionValue: S,I,R,Xstring-
Azithromycin_Equivalence_OperatorEquivalence operator on the test result for Azithromycinstring-
Azithromycin_Resultnumberlevel : Ratio
Azithromycin_ConclusionValue: S,I,R,Xstring-
Ceftazidime_Equivalence_OperatorEquivalence operator on the test result for Ceftazidimestring-
Ceftazidime_Resultnumberlevel : Ratio
Ceftazidime_ConclusionValue: S,I,R,Xstring-
Ceftazidime_Clavulanic_Acid_Equivalence_OperatorEquivalence operator on the test result for Ceftazidime-clavulanic acidstring-
Ceftazidime_Clavulanic_Acid_Resultnumberlevel : Ratio
Ceftazidime_Clavulanic_Acid_ConclusionValue: S,I,R,Xstring-
Cephalothin_Equivalence_OperatorEquivalence operator on the test result for Cephalothinstring-
Cephalothin_Resultnumberlevel : Ratio
Cephalothin_ConclusionValue: S,I,R,Xstring-
Cefquinome_Equivalence_OperatorEquivalence operator on the test result for Cefquinomestring-
Cefquinome_Resultnumberlevel : Ratio
Cefquinome_ConclusionValue: S,I,R,Xstring-
Chloramphenicol_Equivalence_OperatorCHL (or C in Resistance Pattern). Equivalence operator on the test result for Chloramphenicolstring-
Chloramphenicol_Resultnumberlevel : Ratio
Chloramphenicol_ConclusionValue: S,I,R,Xstring-
Ciprofloxacin_Equivalence_OperatorEquivalence operator on the test result for Ciprofloxacinstring-
Ciprofloxacin_Resultnumberlevel : Ratio
Ciprofloxacin_ConclusionValue: S,I,R,Xstring-
Clindamycin_Equivalence_OperatorEquivalence operator on the test result for Clindamycinstring-
Clindamycin_Resultnumberlevel : Ratio
Clindamycin_ConclusionValue: S,I,R,Xstring-
Trimethoprim_Sulfamethoxazole_Equivalence_OperatorEquivalence operator on the test result for Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazolestring-
Trimethoprim_Sulfamethoxazole_Resultnumberlevel : Ratio
Trimethoprim_Sulfamethoxazole_ConclusionValue: S,I,R,Xstring-
Cefotaxime_Clavulanic_Acid_Equivalence_OperatorEquivalence operator on the test result for Cefotaxime-clavulanic acidstring-
Cefotaxime_Clavulanic_Acid_Resultnumberlevel : Ratio
Cefotaxime_Clavulanic_Acid_ConclusionValue: S,I,R,Xstring-
Cefotaxime_Equivalence_OperatorEquivalence operator on the test result for Cefotaximestring-
Cefotaxime_Resultnumberlevel : Ratio
Cefotaxime_ConclusionValue: S,I,R,Xstring-
Erythromycin_Equivalence_OperatorEquivalence operator on the test result for Erythromycinstring-
Erythromycin_Resultnumberlevel : Ratio
Erythromycin_ConclusionValue: S,I,R,Xstring-
Cefepime_Equivalence_OperatorEquivalence operator on the test result for Cefepimestring-
Cefepime_Resultnumberlevel : Ratio
Cefepime_ConclusionValue: S,I,R,Xstring-
Florfenicol_Equivalence_OperatorEquivalence operator on the test result for Florfenicolstring-
Florfenicol_Resultnumberlevel : Ratio
Florfenicol_ConclusionValue: S,I,R,Xstring-
Sulfisoxazole_Equivalence_OperatorFIS (or Su in Resistance Pattern). Equivalence operator on the test result for Sulfisoxazolestring-
Sulfisoxazole_Resultintegerlevel : Ratio
Sulfisoxazole_ConclusionValue: S,I,R,Xstring-
Cefoxitin_Equivalence_OperatorEquivalence operator on the test result for Cefoxitinstring-
Cefoxitin_Resultnumberlevel : Ratio
Cefoxitin_ConclusionValue: S,I,R,Xstring-
Gentamicin_Equivalence_OperatorEquivalence operator on the test result for Gentamicinstring-
Gentamicin_Resultnumberlevel : Ratio
Gentamicin_ConclusionValue: S,I,R,Xstring-
Imipenem_Equivalence_OperatorEquivalence operator on the test result for Imipenemstring-
Imipenem_Resultnumberlevel : Ratio
Imipenem_ConclusionValue: S,I,R,Xstring-
Kanamycin_Equivalence_OperatorEquivalence operator on the test result for Kanamycinstring-
Kanamycin_Resultintegerlevel : Ratio
Kanamycin_ConclusionValue: S,I,R,Xstring-
Naladixic_Acid_Equivalence_OperatorEquivalence operator on the test result for Naladixic acidstring-
Naladixic_Acid_Resultnumberlevel : Ratio
Naladixic_Acid_ConclusionValue: S,I,R,Xstring-
Piperacillin_Tazobactam_Equivalence_OperatorEquivalence operator on the test result for Piperacillin-tazobactamstring-
Piperacillin_Tazobactam_Resultnumberlevel : Ratio
Piperacillin_Tazobactam_ConclusionValue: S,I,R,Xstring-
Sulfamethoxazole_Equivalence_OperatorEquivalence operator on the test result for Sulfamethoxazolestring-
Sulfamethoxazole_Resultintegerlevel : Ratio
Sulfamethoxazole_ConclusionValue: S,I,R,Xstring-
Streptomycin_Equivalence_OperatorSTR (or S in Resistance Pattern). STR (or S in Resistance Pattern) .Equivalence operator on the test result for Streptomycinstring-
Streptomycin_Resultintegerlevel : Ratio
Streptomycin_ConclusionValue: S,I,R,Xstring-
Telithromycin_Equivalence_OperatorEquivalence operator on the test result for Telithromycinstring-
Telithromycin_Resultnumberlevel : Ratio
Telithromycin_ConclusionValue: S,I,R,Xstring-
Tetracycline_Equivalence_OperatorTET (or T in Resistance Pattern) .Equivalence operator on the test result for Tetracyclinestring-
Tetracycline_Resultnumberlevel : Ratio
Tetracycline_ConclusionValue: S,I,R,Xstring-
Ceftiofur_Equivalence_OperatorEquivalence operator on the test result for Ceftiofurstring-
Ceftiofur_Resultnumberlevel : Ratio
Ceftiofur_ConclusionValue: S,I,R,Xstring-
Genus_of_Bacterial_IsolateSpecies_of_Bacterial_IsolateSerotype_of_Bacterial_IsolateData_Year_of_the_Bacterial_Isolate_SubmissionRegion_NameAge_GroupSpecimen_SourceResistance_PatternAmikacin_Equivalence_OperatorAmikacin_ResultAmikacin_ConclusionAmpicillin_Equivalence_OperatorAmpicillin_ResultAmpicillin_ConclusionAztreonam_Equivalence_OperatorAztreonam_ResultAztreonam_ConclusionAmoxicillin_Clavulanic_Acid_Equivalence_OperatorAmoxicillin_Clavulanic_Acid_ResultAmoxicillin_Clavulanic_Acid_ConclusionCeftriaxone_Equivalence_OperatorCeftriaxone_ResultCeftriaxone_ConclusionAzithromycin_Equivalence_OperatorAzithromycin_ResultAzithromycin_ConclusionCeftazidime_Equivalence_OperatorCeftazidime_ResultCeftazidime_ConclusionCeftazidime_Clavulanic_Acid_Equivalence_OperatorCeftazidime_Clavulanic_Acid_ResultCeftazidime_Clavulanic_Acid_ConclusionCephalothin_Equivalence_OperatorCephalothin_ResultCephalothin_ConclusionCefquinome_Equivalence_OperatorCefquinome_ResultCefquinome_ConclusionChloramphenicol_Equivalence_OperatorChloramphenicol_ResultChloramphenicol_ConclusionCiprofloxacin_Equivalence_OperatorCiprofloxacin_ResultCiprofloxacin_ConclusionClindamycin_Equivalence_OperatorClindamycin_ResultClindamycin_ConclusionTrimethoprim_Sulfamethoxazole_Equivalence_OperatorTrimethoprim_Sulfamethoxazole_ResultTrimethoprim_Sulfamethoxazole_ConclusionCefotaxime_Clavulanic_Acid_Equivalence_OperatorCefotaxime_Clavulanic_Acid_ResultCefotaxime_Clavulanic_Acid_ConclusionCefotaxime_Equivalence_OperatorCefotaxime_ResultCefotaxime_ConclusionErythromycin_Equivalence_OperatorErythromycin_ResultErythromycin_ConclusionCefepime_Equivalence_OperatorCefepime_ResultCefepime_ConclusionFlorfenicol_Equivalence_OperatorFlorfenicol_ResultFlorfenicol_ConclusionSulfisoxazole_Equivalence_OperatorSulfisoxazole_ResultSulfisoxazole_ConclusionCefoxitin_Equivalence_OperatorCefoxitin_ResultCefoxitin_ConclusionGentamicin_Equivalence_OperatorGentamicin_ResultGentamicin_ConclusionImipenem_Equivalence_OperatorImipenem_ResultImipenem_ConclusionKanamycin_Equivalence_OperatorKanamycin_ResultKanamycin_ConclusionNaladixic_Acid_Equivalence_OperatorNaladixic_Acid_ResultNaladixic_Acid_ConclusionPiperacillin_Tazobactam_Equivalence_OperatorPiperacillin_Tazobactam_ResultPiperacillin_Tazobactam_ConclusionSulfamethoxazole_Equivalence_OperatorSulfamethoxazole_ResultSulfamethoxazole_ConclusionStreptomycin_Equivalence_OperatorStreptomycin_ResultStreptomycin_ConclusionTelithromycin_Equivalence_OperatorTelithromycin_ResultTelithromycin_ConclusionTetracycline_Equivalence_OperatorTetracycline_ResultTetracycline_ConclusionCeftiofur_Equivalence_OperatorCeftiofur_ResultCeftiofur_Conclusion
Campylobacterjejuni1997Region 4T=12S=0.38S=0.25S=1S=3S>256R
Campylobactercoli1997Region 4CipNalCli=6S>32R=2R=4S>256R=0.5S
Campylobacterjejuni1997Region 4TCipCli=8S=1R=1R=1.5S=12S>256R
Campylobacterjejuni1997Region 4Cli=8S=0.5S=1R=0.25S=16S=0.125S
Campylobactercoli1997Region 4CTCipNal>256R=1R=0.25S=4S=64R>256R
Campylobacterjejuni1997Region 1StoolT=3S=0.094S=0.25S=1S=8S>256R
Campylobacterjejuni1997Region 120-29StoolT=8S=0.38S=0.38S=3S=3S=6R
Campylobactercoli1997Region 4CTCipNalCli=24R>32R=12R=1.5S>256R=24R
Campylobacterjejuni1997Region 55-9StoolT=4S=0.19S=0.5S=1.5S=6S>256R
Campylobacterjejuni1997Region 45-9UnknownT=1S=0.25S=0.125S=2S=3S=6R