The Animal Aging and Longevity Database

$79 / year

The Animal Ageing (AnAge) and Longevity Database is a database of longevity, aging, and life history in extant species employing the same engine of GenAge. The most important trait in this dataset is maximum longevity (also called maximum lifespan) because it is the most widely used parameter for comparing the rate of aging between species.

Complexity

In this dataset, the maximum longevity is estimated from record longevity. Many factors can affect biases in longevity records, such as population size and whether animals are kept in captivity or not. Because it is the objective that maximum longevity is to be a reliable term for comparison between species, biases have been minimized.

A great effort to obtain the original source of each longevity record and verify its authenticity was applied; anecdotes are not used to estimate maximum longevity, though they are mentioned in the observations section; and species for which maximum longevity is suspicious of being significantly underestimated have generally a maximum longevity classified as “not yet available”. In addition, whether the maximum longevity of a given species comes from a specimen in the wild or in captivity is indicated for the vast majority of species.

All species have an estimate of the sample size to allow researchers performing comparative longevity studies to minimize the bias of sample size on longevity records. For longevity records obtained from species in captivity, estimates of sample size were obtained from the International Species Information System (ISIS). Estimates of wild-derived records were typically obtained from the sources of the longevity data, such as banding studies in birds.

Sample sizes reflect differences in orders of magnitude in the number of specimens for each species and are classified as ‘tiny’ (fewer than 10 specimens), ‘small’ (10-100), ‘medium’ (100-1000), ‘large’ (over 1000) and ‘huge’. Human beings are the only species with a sample size classified as ‘huge’ and this classifier was included to mark the special status of the human species in this context.

Each entry has a qualifier of the confidence placed in the longevity data. This qualifier is based on the reliability of the original reference from which maximum longevity was obtained, sample size, whether a given species has been studied and reproduces in captivity, and whether there are any conflicting reports. Confidence in the longevity data is hence classified as: ‘low’ (only used for species without an established maximum longevity in AnAge), ‘questionable’, ‘acceptable’ and ‘high’.

Entries in AnAge can be useful for researchers to learn more about the aging process of a particular species. Species with unique aging phenotypes or of special interest to gerontologists, such as species with negligible senescence and commonly used model organisms, are included. Apart from longevity, observations about physiological and pathological changes with age in animals are featured where available.

Although demographic measurements of aging are included in AnAge, these require detailed animal studies which are rarely available and thus represent only a small fraction of the data in AnAge. If possible, the mortality rate doubling time (MRDT) was determined for a given species using the Gompertz equation.

Typical values of major life history traits such as adult body size and age at sexual maturity are also featured in AnAge, at least for most mammals. Estimates of metabolic rates, such as resting or basal metabolic rate, are also featured for some species. Nonetheless, while consultation was done, the original source regarding longevity records (as described above), for other life history traits and metabolic rates, reviews were considered for large-scale datasets. Errors were minimized, although observed discrepancies (e.g., between male and female ages at sexual maturity or between inter-litter interval and litters per year) still reflect inconsistencies in these large-scale data sources.

For mammals, also included is the maximum longevity (tmax) residual, expressed as a percentage of the expected maximum longevity calculated from the adult body size (M) and derived from the mammalian allometric equation: tmax = 4.88M0.153. This is useful to identify species that live longer than expected for their body size. Cetaceans were excluded because there is less confidence in their longevity records, obtained from studies in the wild often using indirect methods, than in those from other mammalian taxa.

Included for some mammals and birds are growth rates. These values represent postnatal growth rate and are expressed in days-1. They were calculated by fitting empirical data taken from published growth curves to sigmoidal growth functions and are considered appropriate for comparative analyses within the same taxonomic class. Please be aware, however, that growth rates for mammals were derived from the Gompertz function while growth rates for birds were derived from the logistic function, so comparisons between the two classes need to take this into account.

Often, additional information relevant to a particular species can be found in the higher taxa of that species. Therefore, users are encouraged to refer to the observations related to their species of interest as well as the taxa it belongs to.

Because the ultimate aim is to help understand human aging, priority is given to species evolutionary closer to humans. Though there is a special focus on mammals and mammalian entries tend to include more information, other taxa are also represented, including some non-animal species. Species are classified according to Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species. The taxonomy of AnAge follows that of the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS).

Date Created

2013

Last Modified

2014-01-13

Version

2014-01-13

Update Frequency

Irregular

Temporal Coverage

N/A

Spatial Coverage

N/A

Source

John Snow Labs => Human Ageing Genomic Resources

Source License URL

John Snow Labs Standard License

Source License Requirements

N/A

Source Citation

Tacutu, R., Craig, T., Budovsky, A., Wuttke, D., Lehmann, G., Taranukha, D., Costa, J., Fraifeld, V. E., de Magalhaes, J. P. (2013) "Human Ageing Genomic Resources Integrated databases and tools for the biology and genetics of ageing." Nucleic Acids Research 41(D1)D1027-D1033. PubMed

Keywords

Senescence, Telomeres, Genetic Variant, Genetic Association, Aging, Longevity, Relational Database, Database Management, Database Management System

Other Titles

The Animal Ageing and Longevity, The Animal Aging and Senescence Database, The Animal Aging and Longevity Relational Database, The Animal Aging and Longevity Database Management System, The Animal Aging and Longevity Database Management

Name Description Type Constraints
HAGR_IDHAGR ID is a unique identifier that is assigned to a gene record in the Human Ageing Genomic Resources database.stringrequired : 1
Organism_KingdomKingdom, one of the seven main taxonomic ranks, which belongs to the "Animalia" taxon is used in the biological classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes. Kingdom (Latin: regnum, plural regna) is the second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain.stringrequired : 1
Organism_PhylumPhylum, one of the seven main taxonomic ranks, which belongs to the "Chordata" taxon is used in the biological classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes. Phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.stringrequired : 1
Organism_ClassClass, one of the seven main taxonomic ranks, which belongs to the "Mammalia" taxon is used in the biological classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes. The composition of each class is determined by a taxonomist. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists taking different positions.stringrequired : 1
Organism_OrderOrder, one of the seven main taxonomic ranks, which belongs to the "Carnivora" taxon is used in the biological classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes. The order that does and does not belong to each taxon is determined by a taxonomist, as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position.stringrequired : 1
Organism_FamilyFamily, one of the seven main taxonomic ranks, which belongs to the "Canidae" taxon is used in the biological classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes. A family may be divided into subfamilies, which are intermediate ranks above the rank of genus.stringrequired : 1
Organism_GenusGenus, one of the seven main taxonomic ranks, which belongs to the "Vulpes" taxon is used in the biological classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.stringrequired : 1
Organism_SpeciesSpecies, one of the seven main taxonomic ranks, which belongs to the "Vulpes vulpes" taxon is used in the biological classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes. Species (abbreviated sp., with the plural form species abbreviated spp.) is the basic unit of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction.stringrequired : 1
Organism_Common_NameThe common name given to an organism regardless of its biological classification.stringrequired : 1
Female_Maturity_in_DaysThe maturity of female organisms in days.integerlevel : Interval
Male_Maturity_in_DaysThe maturity of male organisms in days.integerlevel : Interval
Gestation_or_Incubation_DaysThe number of days for an organism's gestation or incubation.integerlevel : Interval
Weaning_DaysThe number of weaning days for an organism.integerlevel : Interval
Litter_Clutch_SizeA litter is the multiple offspring at one birth of animals from the same mother and usually from one set of parents. The word is most often used for the offspring of mammals but can be used for any mammal that gives birth to multiple young. Biology In comparison, a group of eggs and the offspring that hatch from them are frequently called a clutch, while young birds are often called a brood. A litter is defined as anywhere between three and eight offspring.numberlevel : Interval
Litters_Clutches_Per_YearSize of litters or clutches per year.numberlevel : Interval
Interlitter_Interbirth_IntervalInterval of an organism interlitter or interbirth.integerlevel : Interval
Birth_Weight_in_GramsBirth weight of an organism in grams.numberlevel : Interval
Weaning_Weight_in_GramsWeaning weight of an organism in grams.string-
Adult_Weight_in_GramsAdult weight of an organism in grams.string-
Growth_RateThe growth rate of an organism 1/day.numberlevel : Ratio
Maximum_Longevity_Yearsnumberlevel : Interval
SourceSources for this organism.string-
Specimen_OriginOrigin of the specimen.stringrequired : 1
Sample_SizeThe sample size of an organism used in molecular biology, which is described as small, medium or large. Sample sizes reflect differences in orders of magnitude in the number of specimens for each species and are classified as 'tiny' (fewer than 10 specimens), 'small' (10-100), 'medium' (100-1000), 'large' (over 1000) and 'huge'. Human beings are the only species with a sample size classified as 'huge' and this classifier was included to mark the special status of the human species in this context.stringrequired : 1
Data_QualityData quality of results of the study.stringrequired : 1
IMR_Per_YearInitial Mortality Rate (IMR) of an organism per year.numberlevel : Ratio
MRDT_in_YearsMortality Rate Doubling Time (MRDT) is the time required for the mortality rate to double. Inferred from the Gompertz equation.numberlevel : Ratio
Metabolic_Rate_in_WeeksThe metabolic rate of an organism in weeks.numberlevel : Ratio
Body_Mass_in_GramsBody mass of an organism in grams.numberlevel : Interval
Temperature_in_KelvinThe temperature in Kelvin scale used for each organism in the study. Kelvin is a temperature scale designed so that zero degrees K is defined as absolute zero (at absolute zero, a hypothetical temperature, all molecular movement stops - all actual temperatures are above absolute zero) and the size of one unit is the same as the size of one degree Celsius.numberlevel : Interval
ReferencesThe number of references used for organisms in this study.string-
HAGR_IDOrganism_KingdomOrganism_PhylumOrganism_ClassOrganism_OrderOrganism_FamilyOrganism_GenusOrganism_SpeciesOrganism_Common_NameFemale_Maturity_in_DaysMale_Maturity_in_DaysGestation_or_Incubation_DaysWeaning_DaysLitter_Clutch_SizeLitters_Clutches_Per_YearInterlitter_Interbirth_IntervalBirth_Weight_in_GramsWeaning_Weight_in_GramsAdult_Weight_in_GramsGrowth_RateMaximum_Longevity_YearsSourceSpecimen_OriginSample_SizeData_QualityIMR_Per_YearMRDT_in_YearsMetabolic_Rate_in_WeeksBody_Mass_in_GramsTemperature_in_KelvinReferences
04040AnimaliaChordataReptiliaSquamataViperidaeBothropsjararacaJararacaunknownsmalllow485
03990AnimaliaChordataReptiliaSquamataScincidaeOligosomagrandeGrand skinkunknownsmalllow451
02568AnimaliaChordataMammaliaCarnivoraFelidaeLeopardusguignaKodkod2230unknownsmalllow671,730
00924AnimaliaChordataAmphibiaAnuraRanidaeRanaesculentaEdible frog12525wildmediumacceptable525
02361AnimaliaChordataMammaliaArtiodactylaBovidaeBossauveliKouprey2601800000unknownsmalllow434
01407AnimaliaChordataAvesGalliformesPhasianidaeLagopusmutaPtarmigan535.5unknownsmalllow450,820
00858AnimaliaChordataAmphibiaAnuraBufonidaeRhinellaarenarumArgentine toadunknownsmalllow451,525
00085AnimaliaChordataActinopterygiiClupeiformesClupeidaeTenualosatoliToli shadunknownsmalllow454
00874AnimaliaChordataAmphibiaAnuraHylidaeAgalychniscallidryasRed-eyed tree frogunknownlargelow485
00922AnimaliaChordataAmphibiaAnuraRanidaeRanaarvalisMoor frog175011525wildmediumacceptable525,749