The United States is a major wheat-producing country, with output typically exceeded only by China, the European Union, India, and Russia (in the last three years).
– Marketing Years:
The local marketing year for U.S. wheat and rye is June 1-May 31. Marketing years may be written to include both calendar years. For example, 2005/06 refers to the marketing year beginning June 1, 2005 and ending May 31, 2006. Data for U.S. production, supply, food use, stocks, prices, imports, and exports are on a marketing-year basis. Data for flour production, supply, disappearance, and prices are on a calendar-year basis.
Most data are updated monthly or quarterly. Some data are updated only annually.
– Conversion Factors:
Several units of measure are used in this data product. Here are a few useful conversion factors:
– 1 bushel of wheat = 60 pounds or 77.2 kilograms/hectoliter
– 1 metric ton = 2,204.622 pounds
– Bushels x 0.0272155 = metric tons
– Metric tons x 36.7437 = bushels
– Price per bushel x 36.7437 = price per metric ton
– Price per metric ton x 0.0272155 = price per bushel
– 1 acre = 0.4047 hectares
– 1 hectare = 2.4710 acres
– Bushels/acre x 0.06725 = metric tons/hectare
– Metric tons/hectare x 14.87 = bushels/acre
– Supply Data:
Estimating the supply of U.S. wheat is a joint effort of several agencies of USDA’s Wheat Interagency Commodity Estimates Committee (ICEC). Through the wheat ICEC, USDA estimates supply and use variables for each of the five U.S. classes of wheat. These estimates are published monthly in World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE), and changes in the estimates from month-to-month are explained in ERS’ monthly Wheat Outlook.
– Food Use Data:
Domestic food use of wheat must be estimated indirectly because no data are collected on actual consumption of wheat in the United States. Estimates are made on a monthly basis. The estimate is the sum of wheat milled for flour, net imports (imports minus exports) of flour and wheat products (only wheat products used for food, products used for feed are excluded), and non-flour wheat use (grain processed in some way other than milling).
Monthly estimates of all wheat and durum grain milled and flour and mill feed produced are calculated by ERS using quarterly data from the U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau. Monthly ERS food import and export estimates are a subset of the monthly wheat import and export estimates made by ERS using monthly trade data from the Census Bureau. The Census flour and wheat product trade data are converted to ERS estimates of grain-equivalent bushels of wheat. The estimate for non-flour wheat use is made by ERS.
– Price Data:
Farm Prices: Annual season-average price for all wheat, rye, and each of the five classes of wheat is based on monthly prices received by farmers weighted by monthly marketing. These prices are from USDA’s National Agricultural Statistics Service.
Market Prices: The monthly, cash-bid prices for various classes and grades of wheat at principal U.S. wheat markets are from USDA’s Agricultural Marketing Service. The monthly market prices for Canada, Australia, and the Netherlands (Rotterdam) are calculated by ERS from weekly prices from the International Grains Council’s Grain Market Report. The monthly prices for Argentina are from Republica Argentina, Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Pesca y Alimentos (SAGPyA).