GINI Index Data

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GINI Index Data consists of information based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. In economics, the GINI index (sometimes expressed as a GINI ratio, GINI coefficient or a normalized GINI index) is a measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the income or wealth distribution of a nation’s residents, and is the most commonly used measure of inequality. The Indicator Name used in the dataset is “GINI index (World Bank estimate)” and its code is SI.POV.GINI

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Complexity

GINI index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or, in some cases, consumption expenditure) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Lorenz curve plots the cumulative percentages of total income received against the cumulative number of recipients, starting with the poorest individual or household. The GINI index measures the area between the Lorenz curve and a hypothetical line of absolute equality, expressed as a percentage of the maximum area under the line. Thus a GINI index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality.

The World Bank’s internationally comparable poverty monitoring database now draws on income or detailed consumption data from more than one thousand household surveys across 138 countries in six regions and 21 other high income countries (industrialized economies). While income distribution data are published for all countries with data available, poverty data are published for low- and middle-income countries and countries eligible to receive loans from the World Bank (such as Chile) and recently graduated countries (such as Estonia) only.

GINI coefficients are not unique. It is possible for two different Lorenz curves to give rise to the same GINI coefficient. Furthermore it is possible for the GINI coefficient of a developing country to rise (due to increasing inequality of income) while the number of people in absolute poverty decreases. This is because the GINI coefficient measures relative, not absolute, wealth. Another limitation of the GINI coefficient is that it is not additive across groups, i.e. the total GINI of a society is not equal to the sum of the GINI’s for its sub-groups. Thus, country-level GINI coefficients cannot be aggregated into regional or global GINI’s, although a GINI coefficient can be computed for the aggregate. Because the underlying household surveys differ in methods and types of welfare measures collected, data are not strictly comparable across countries or even across years within a country.

Two sources of non-comparability should be noted for distributions of income in particular. First, the surveys can differ in many respects, including whether they use income or consumption expenditure as the living standard indicator. The distribution of income is typically more unequal than the distribution of consumption. In addition, the definitions of income used differ more often among surveys. Consumption is usually a much better welfare indicator, particularly in developing countries. Second, households differ in size (number of members) and in the extent of income sharing among members. And individuals differ in age and consumption needs. Differences among countries in these respects may bias comparisons of distribution. World Bank staff have made an effort to ensure that the data are as comparable as possible. Wherever possible, consumption has been used rather than income. Income distribution and GINI indexes for high-income economies are calculated directly from the Luxembourg Income Study database, using an estimation method consistent with that applied for developing countries.

Date Created

2017-07-20

Last Modified

2017-07-20

Version

2017-07-20

Update Frequency

Annual

Temporal Coverage

1981-2014

Spatial Coverage

World

Source

John Snow Labs => World Bank, Development Research Group

Source License URL

John Snow Labs Standard License

Source License Requirements

N/A

Source Citation

N/A

Keywords

GINI, GINI Coefficients, GINI Index, High Income Economies, World Bank Data, GINI Ratio

Other Titles

Historic Values of The GINI Index, GINI Coefficients Database, Global Gini Index Data

Name Description Type Constraints
Country_NameName of the countrystringrequired : 1
Country_CodeISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country codestringrequired : 1
Region_NameName of the region within the countrystring-
Income_GroupCountry's income groupstring-
Special_NotesSpecial notes, if any.string-
Year_1981GINI Index value for the country in 1981numberlevel : Ratio
Year_1982GINI Index value for the country in 1982numberlevel : Ratio
Year_1983GINI Index value for the country in 1983numberlevel : Ratio
Year_1984GINI Index value for the country in 1984numberlevel : Ratio
Year_1985GINI Index value for the country in 1985numberlevel : Ratio
Year_1986GINI Index value for the country in 1986numberlevel : Ratio
Year_1987GINI Index value for the country in 1987numberlevel : Ratio
Year_1988GINI Index value for the country in 1988numberlevel : Ratio
Year_1989GINI Index value for the country in 1989numberlevel : Ratio
Year_1990GINI Index value for the country in 1990numberlevel : Ratio
Year_1991GINI Index value for the country in 1991numberlevel : Ratio
Year_1992GINI Index value for the country in 1992numberlevel : Ratio
Year_1993GINI Index value for the country in 1993numberlevel : Ratio
Year_1994GINI Index value for the country in 1994numberlevel : Ratio
Year_1995GINI Index value for the country in 1995numberlevel : Ratio
Year_1996GINI Index value for the country in 1996numberlevel : Ratio
Year_1997GINI Index value for the country in 1997numberlevel : Ratio
Year_1998GINI Index value for the country in 1998numberlevel : Ratio
Year_1999GINI Index value for the country in 1999numberlevel : Ratio
Year_2000GINI Index value for the country in 2000numberlevel : Ratio
Year_2001GINI Index value for the country in 2001numberlevel : Ratio
Year_2002GINI Index value for the country in 2002numberlevel : Ratio
Year_2003GINI Index value for the country in 2003numberlevel : Ratio
Year_2004GINI Index value for the country in 2004numberlevel : Ratio
Year_2005GINI Index value for the country in 2005numberlevel : Ratio
Year_2006GINI Index value for the country in 2006numberlevel : Ratio
Year_2007GINI Index value for the country in 2007numberlevel : Ratio
Year_2008GINI Index value for the country in 2008numberlevel : Ratio
Year_2009GINI Index value for the country in 2009numberlevel : Ratio
Year_2010GINI Index value for the country in 2010numberlevel : Ratio
Year_2011GINI Index value for the country in 2011numberlevel : Ratio
Year_2012GINI Index value for the country in 2012numberlevel : Ratio
Year_2013GINI Index value for the country in 2013numberlevel : Ratio
Year_2014GINI Index value for the country in 2014numberlevel : Ratio
Country_NameCountry_CodeRegion_NameIncome_GroupSpecial_NotesYear_1981Year_1982Year_1983Year_1984Year_1985Year_1986Year_1987Year_1988Year_1989Year_1990Year_1991Year_1992Year_1993Year_1994Year_1995Year_1996Year_1997Year_1998Year_1999Year_2000Year_2001Year_2002Year_2003Year_2004Year_2005Year_2006Year_2007Year_2008Year_2009Year_2010Year_2011Year_2012Year_2013Year_2014
WorldWLDWorld aggregate.
Euro areaEMUEuro area aggregate.
BermudaBMUNorth AmericaHigh income
IDA onlyIDXIDA only group aggregate.
GuamGUMEast Asia & PacificHigh income
EritreaERISub-Saharan AfricaLow income
IBRD onlyIBDIBRD only group aggregate.
IDA blendIDBIDA blend group aggregate.
OECD membersOEDOECD members aggregate.
SomaliaSOMSub-Saharan AfricaLow income
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