SNAP Distribution Policy Database

$447.50 / year

This dataset provides a central data source for information on State policy options in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) offers nutrition assistance to millions of eligible, low-income individuals and families and provides economic benefits to communities. SNAP is the largest program in the domestic hunger safety net. The Food and Nutrition Service works with State agencies, nutrition educators, and neighborhood and faith-based organizations to ensure that those eligible for nutrition assistance can make informed decisions about applying for the program and can access benefits. FNS (Food and Nutrition Service) also works with State partners and the retail community to improve program administration and ensure program integrity.

Complexity

The SNAP Policy Database provides a central source of information on State policy choices over time to capitalize on the research opportunities created by these natural policy experiments. It includes information on State-level program policies related to:

– Eligibility criteria,
– Recertification and reporting requirements,
– Benefit issuance methods,
– Availability of online applications,
– Use of biometric finger-printing technology, and
– Coordination with other low-income assistance programs.

Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits are federally funded, but the program is administered in partnership with the States. Historically, there was a uniform national standard for SNAP eligibility and benefit levels, with little State variation in SNAP administration, until the mid-1990s. Variation in State-level program administration and eligibility guidelines increased dramatically due to the 1996 welfare reform legislation (and subsequent legislative and regulatory changes). Since the mid-1990s, States have been granted more flexibility in the way they administer SNAP.

The SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) Policy Database provides a central source of information on State policy choices over time. This dataset draws on policy information from a wide variety of sources, including surveys by USDA’s (United States Department of Agriculture) Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), national and State policy research organizations, State policy manuals, and news articles. Data are provided for all 50 States and the District of Columbia, for each month from January 1996 through December 2016.

Date Created

2019-02-13

Last Modified

2019-02-13

Version

2019-02-13

Update Frequency

Irregular

Temporal Coverage

N/A

Spatial Coverage

United States

Source

John Snow Labs; United States Department of Agriculture;

Source License URL

Source License Requirements

N/A

Source Citation

N/A

Keywords

Family Assistance Programs, Safety Net Assistance Program, Domestic Hunger, Supplemental Nutrition Program, Recipients and Expenditures for SNAP, Food and Nutrition Service, SNAP, ERS SNAP

Other Titles

Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Caseloads and Expenditures, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Policy Database

NameDescriptionTypeConstraints
State_FIPS_CodeThe State FIPS (Federal Information Processing) codeintegerrequired : 1 level : Nominal
State_AbbreviationThe State postal codestringrequired : 1
StateName of the Statestringrequired : 1
Observation_YearMonth and year of the observation.daterequired : 1
Is_Broad_Based_Categorical_EligibilityThe State uses broad-based categorical eligibility to increase or eliminate the asset test and/or to increase the gross income limit for virtually all SNAP applicants.booleanrequired : 1
Percent_Gross_Income_LimitThe gross income limit as a percentage of the Federal poverty guidelines used under broad-based categorical eligibility.integerrequired : 1 level : Ratio
Asset_TestThe State eliminates the asset test under broad-based categorical eligibility.stringrequired : 1
Amount_of_Asset_Limit_in_USDThe dollar amount of the asset limit used under broad-based categorical eligibility (in thousands). Range = -9 to 25, where -9 = no broad-based categorical eligibility, or broad-based categorical eligibility eliminates the asset test.numberrequired : 1 level : Ratio
Vehicles_State_LimitThe State excludes at least one, but not all, vehicles in the household from the SNAP asset test used under broad-based categorical eligibility.stringrequired : 1
Household_State_LimitThe State limits broad-based categorical eligibility to certain types of households.stringrequired : 1
State_Limit_For_Senior_or_Disabled_MembersThe State increases or eliminates the asset test for households with senior or disabled members under broad-based categorical eligibility only if their gross income is below a specified level. Note: Households with senior or disabled members whose income is above the State-specified cut-off (typically 200 percent of the poverty line) do not qualify for broad-based categorical eligibility and would face the federal asset limit.stringrequired : 1
Call_Centers_AvailabilityThe State operates call centers, and whether or not call centers service the entire State or select regions within the State.string-
Is_Combined_Application_ProjectWhether or not the State operates a Combined Application Project for recipients of Supplemental Security Income (SSI), so that SSI recipients are able to use a streamlined SNAP application process.boolean-
SNAP_Units_With_1_to_3_Months_RecertificationThe proportion of SNAP units with earnings with 1-3 month recertification periods. Range = 0 to 0.93.numberlevel : Ratio
SNAP_Units_With_4_to_6_Months_RecertificationThe proportion of SNAP units with earnings with 4-6 month recertification periods. Range = 0 to 1.numberlevel : Ratio
SNAP_Units_With_7_to_12_Months_RecertificationThe proportion of SNAP units with earnings with 7-12 month recertification periods. Range = 0 to 1.numberlevel : Ratio
SNAP_Units_With_13_Plus_Months_RecertificationThe proportion of SNAP units with earnings with 13+ month recertification periods. Range = 0 to 0.88.numberlevel : Ratio
Average_Certification_PeriodThe average certification period (in months) for SNAP units with earnings. Range = 3.1 to 15.2.numberlevel : Ratio
Median_Certification_PeriodThe median certification period (in months) for SNAP units with earnings. Range = 2.8 to 15.numberlevel : Ratio
Elderly_SNAP_Units_With_1_to_3_Months_RecertificationThe proportion of elderly SNAP units with 1-3 month recertification periods. Range = 0 to 0.38.numberlevel : Ratio
Elderly_SNAP_Units_With_4_to_6_Months_RecertificationThe proportion of elderly SNAP units with 4-6 month recertification periods. Range = 0 to 0.73.numberlevel : Ratio
Elderly_SNAP_Units_With_7_to_12_Months_RecertificationThe proportion of elderly SNAP units with 7-12 month recertification periods. Range = 0 to 1.numberlevel : Ratio
Elderly_SNAP_Units_With_13_Plus_Months_RecertificationThe proportion of elderly SNAP units with 13+ month recertification periods. Range = 0 to 1.numberlevel : Ratio
Elderly_Average_Certification_PeriodThe average certification period (in months) for elderly SNAP units. Range = 7.3 to 50.9.numberlevel : Ratio
Elderly_Median_Certification_PeriodThe median certification period (in months) for elderly SNAP units. Range = 6 to 48.numberlevel : Ratio
Nonearning_SNAP_Units_With_1_to_3_Months_RecertificationThe proportion of nonearning, nonelderly SNAP units with 1-3 month recertification periods. Range = 0 to 0.70.numberlevel : Ratio
Nonearning_SNAP_Units_With_4_to_6_Months_RecertificationThe proportion of nonearning, nonelderly SNAP units with 4-6 month recertification periods. Range = 0 to 0.95.numberlevel : Ratio
Nonearning_SNAP_Units_With_7_to_12_Months_RecertificationThe proportion of nonearning, nonelderly SNAP units with 7-12 month recertification periods. Range = 0 to 1.numberlevel : Ratio
Nonearning_SNAP_Units_With_13_Plus_Months_RecertificationThe proportion of nonearning, nonelderly SNAP units with 13+ month recertification periods. Range = 0 to 0.84.numberlevel : Ratio
Nonearning_Average_Certification_PeriodThe average certification period (in months) for nonearning, nonelderly SNAP units. Range = 4.5 to 20.8.numberlevel : Ratio
Nonearning_Median_Certification_PeriodThe median certification period (in months) for nonearning, nonelderly SNAP units. Range = 3 to 19.numberlevel : Ratio
Electronic_Benefit_Transfer_IssuanceThe proportion of the dollar value of all SNAP benefits that are accounted for by EBT (electronic benefit transfer). Range = 0 to 1.numberrequired : 1 level : Ratio
Is_Initial_Certification_Face_to_Face_Interview_WaiverWhether or not the State has been granted a waiver to use a telephone interview in lieu of a face-to-face interview at initial certification, without having to document household hardship.booleanrequired : 1
Is_Recertification_Face_to_Face_Interview_WaiverWhether or not the State has been granted a waiver to use a telephone interview in lieu of a face-to- face interview at recertification, without having to document household hardship.booleanrequired : 1
FingerprintThe State requires fingerprinting of SNAP applicants.stringrequired : 1
Is_All_Legal_Noncitizen_Adults_eligible_For_SNAP_BenefitsWhether or not all legal noncitizen adults (age 18-64) who satisfy other SNAP eligibility requirements such as income and asset limits are eligible for Federal SNAP benefits or State-funded food assistance.booleanrequired : 1
Is_Some_Legal_Noncitizen_Adults_eligible_For_SNAP_BenefitsWhether or not some, but not all, legal noncitizen adults (age 18-64) who satisfy other SNAP eligibility requirements such as income and asset limits are eligible for Federal SNAP benefits or State-funded food assistance.boolean-
Is_All_Legal_Noncitizen_Children_eligible_For_SNAP_BenefitsWhether or not all legal noncitizen children (age < 18) who satisfy other SNAP eligibility requirements such as income and asset limits are eligible for Federal SNAP benefits or State-funded food assistance.booleanrequired : 1
Is_Some_Legal_Noncitizen_Children_eligible_For_SNAP_BenefitsWhether or not some, but not all, legal noncitizen children (age < 18) who satisfy other SNAP eligibility requirements such as income and asset limits are eligible for Federal SNAP benefits or State-funded food assistance.booleanrequired : 1
Is_All_Legal_Noncitizen_Elderly_eligible_For_SNAP_BenefitsWhether or not all legal noncitizen elderly (age ≥ 65) who satisfy other SNAP eligibility requirements such as income and asset limits are eligible for Federal SNAP benefits or State-funded food assistance.boolean-
Is_Some_Legal_Noncitizen_Elderly_eligible_For_SNAP_BenefitsWhether or not some, but not all, legal noncitizen elderly (age ≥ 65) who satisfy other SNAP eligibility requirements such as income and asset limits are eligible for Federal SNAP benefits or State-funded food assistance.boolean-
Online_SNAP_Application_SubmissionThe State allows households to submit a SNAP application online.stringrequired : 1
Outreach_Spending_in_Nominal_DollarsThe sum of Federal, State, and grant outreach spending in nominal dollars (in thousands). This variable is derived from annual data, spread across 12 months of the relevant fiscal year. Range = 0 to 1881.string-
Is_Simplified_Reporting_Option_AvailableWhether or not for households with earnings, the State uses the simplified reporting option that reduces requirements for reporting changes in household circumstances.boolean-
Is_Transitional_SNAP_Benefits_AvailableWhether or not the State offers transitional SNAP benefits to families leaving the TANF or State‐funded cash assistance programs.boolean-
Is_All_Vehicles_ExcludedWhether or not the State excludes all vehicles in the household from the SNAP asset test.boolean-
Is_Vehicle_SNAP_Standard_Auto_ExemptionWhether or not the State exempts an amount higher than the SNAP standard auto exemption (set at $4,650 in FY2018) from the fair market value to determine the countable resource value of a vehicle.boolean-
Is_Atleast_One_Vehicle_ExcludedWhether or not the State excludes at least one, but not all, vehicles in the household from the SNAP asset test.boolean-
State_FIPS_CodeState_AbbreviationStateObservation_YearIs_Broad_Based_Categorical_EligibilityPercent_Gross_Income_LimitAsset_TestAmount_of_Asset_Limit_in_USDVehicles_State_LimitHousehold_State_LimitState_Limit_For_Senior_or_Disabled_MembersCall_Centers_AvailabilityIs_Combined_Application_ProjectUnits_1_to_3_Months_RecertificationUnits_4_to_6_Months_RecertificationUnits_7_to_12_Months_RecertificationUnits_13_Plus_Months_RecertificationAverage_Certification_PeriodMedian_Certification_PeriodElderly_Units_1_to_3_Months_RecertificationElderly_Units_4_to_6_Months_RecertificationElderly_Units_7_to_12_Months_RecertificationElderly_Units_13_Plus_Months_RecertificationElderly_Average_Certification_PeriodElderly_Median_Certification_PeriodNonearning_Units_1_to_3_Months_RecertificationNonearning_Units_4_to_6_Months_RecertificationNonearning_Units_7_to_12_Months_RecertificationNonearning_Units_13_Plus_Months_RecertificationNonearning_Average_Certification_PeriodNonearning_Median_Certification_PeriodElectronic_Benefit_Transfer_IssuanceIs_Initial_Certification_Face_to_Face_Interview_WaiverIs_Recertification_Face_to_Face_Interview_WaiverFingerprintIs_Legal_Noncitizen_Eligible_For_SNAPIs_Some_Legal_Noncitizen_Eligible_For_SNAPIs_Legal_Noncitizen_Children_Eligible_For_SNAPIs_Some_Legal_Noncitizen_Children_Eligible_For_SNAPIs_Legal_Noncitizen_Elderly_Eligible_For_SNAPIs_Some_Legal_Noncitizen_Elderly_Eligible_For_SNAPOnline_SNAP_Application_SubmissionOutreach_Spending_in_Nominal_DollarsIs_Simplified_Reporting_Option_AvailableIs_Transitional_SNAP_Benefits_AvailableIs_All_Vehicles_ExcludedIs_Vehicle_SNAP_Standard_Auto_ExemptionIs_Atleast_One_Vehicle_Excluded
2AKAlaska2016-11false-9no broad-based categorical eligibility-9no broad-based categorical eligibility, or broad-based categorical eligibility eliminates the asset testno broad-based categorical eligibilityno broad-based categorical eligibility1truetrueno fingerprints requiredtruefalseno
2AKAlaska2016-12false-9no broad-based categorical eligibility-9no broad-based categorical eligibility, or broad-based categorical eligibility eliminates the asset testno broad-based categorical eligibilityno broad-based categorical eligibility1truetrueno fingerprints requiredtruefalseno
56WYWyoming2016-11false-9no broad-based categorical eligibility-9no broad-based categorical eligibility, or broad-based categorical eligibility eliminates the asset testno broad-based categorical eligibilityno broad-based categorical eligibility1truetrueno fingerprints requiredtruefalseno
56WYWyoming2016-12false-9no broad-based categorical eligibility-9no broad-based categorical eligibility, or broad-based categorical eligibility eliminates the asset testno broad-based categorical eligibilityno broad-based categorical eligibility1truetrueno fingerprints requiredtruefalseno
49UTUtah2016-11false-9no broad-based categorical eligibility-9no broad-based categorical eligibility, or broad-based categorical eligibility eliminates the asset testno broad-based categorical eligibilityno broad-based categorical eligibility1truetrueno fingerprints requiredtruefalseyes, Statewide
49UTUtah2016-12false-9no broad-based categorical eligibility-9no broad-based categorical eligibility, or broad-based categorical eligibility eliminates the asset testno broad-based categorical eligibilityno broad-based categorical eligibility1truetrueno fingerprints requiredtruefalseyes, Statewide
20KSKansas2016-11false-9no broad-based categorical eligibility-9no broad-based categorical eligibility, or broad-based categorical eligibility eliminates the asset testno broad-based categorical eligibilityno broad-based categorical eligibility1truetrueno fingerprints requiredtruefalseyes, Statewide
20KSKansas2016-12false-9no broad-based categorical eligibility-9no broad-based categorical eligibility, or broad-based categorical eligibility eliminates the asset testno broad-based categorical eligibilityno broad-based categorical eligibility1truetrueno fingerprints requiredtruefalseyes, Statewide
5ARArkansas2016-11false-9no broad-based categorical eligibility-9no broad-based categorical eligibility, or broad-based categorical eligibility eliminates the asset testno broad-based categorical eligibilityno broad-based categorical eligibility1truetrueno fingerprints requiredtruefalseyes, Statewide
5ARArkansas2016-12false-9no broad-based categorical eligibility-9no broad-based categorical eligibility, or broad-based categorical eligibility eliminates the asset testno broad-based categorical eligibilityno broad-based categorical eligibility1truetrueno fingerprints requiredtruefalseyes, Statewide