- Estimation of Productivity Growth in the United States Farm Sector
- Total Factor Productivity and Farm Output Input in the United States
- Agricultural Productivity
- Farm Productivity Growth
- US Agriculture
- Farm Practices in the US
United States Total Farm Output Input and Total Factor Productivity
This dataset provides estimates of productivity growth in the U.S. farm sector for 1948-2019, including indices of farm output, input, and total factor productivity for the United States. All the data is measured as a percentage in this dataset.
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It is widely agreed that increased productivity is the main contributor to economic growth in U.S. agriculture. The level of U.S. farm output was about 2.7 times its 1948 level in 2019, growing at an average annual rate of 1.52 percent. Aggregate input use increased at a modest 0.05 percent annually in the same period, so the positive growth in farm sector output was very substantially due to productivity growth, which increased at an average 1.47 percent per year.
Single-factor measures of productivity, such as corn production per acre (yield or land productivity) or per hour of labor (labor productivity), have been used for many years because the underlying data are often easily available. While useful, such measures can also mislead. For example, yields could increase simply because farmers are adding more of other inputs, such as chemicals, labor, or machinery, to their land base. USDA produces measures of total factor productivity (TFP), taking account of the use of all inputs to the production process.
Specifically, annual productivity growth is the difference between growth of agricultural output and the growth of all inputs taken together. Productivity, therefore, measures changes in the efficiency with which inputs are transformed into outputs. USDA also produces State-level productivity measures (annual growth rates as well as cross-State differences in levels) of productivity, or differences in output per unit of combined inputs. Input measures are adjusted for changes in their quality, such as improvements in the efficacy of chemicals and seeds, changes in the demographics of the farm workforce, or innovations in machinery design. As a result, agricultural productivity is driven by innovations in on-farm tasks, changes in the organization and structure of the farm sector, and research aimed at improvements in farm production. In the short-term, measured agricultural productivity can also be affected by random events like the weather.
– U.S. agricultural productivity growth compares favorably to agricultural productivity growth in other industrialized countries, and to productivity growth in the overall U.S. economy.
– The level of U.S. farm output more than doubled between 1948 and 2019, growing at an average annual rate of 1.52 percent. Aggregate input use increased at a modest 0.05 percent annually in the same period, so the positive growth in farm sector output was very substantially due to productivity (sometimes referred to as total factor productivity, or TFP) growth, which increased at an annual 1.47 percent over the 1948-2019 period.
– During the 2007-13 subperiod, growth in output maintained an average annual rate of about 0.9 percent, comparable to that in the 2000-07 subperiod (the subperiods are measured from cyclical peak-to-peak in aggregate economic activity). During 2007-13, however, input use declined 0.54 percent per year (compared to increasing 0.32 percent per year over 2000-07), and measured average annual TFP growth rate rebounded from 0.6 percent during 2000-07 to 1.45 percent during 2007-13.
About this Dataset
John Snow Labs; United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Economic Research Service (ERS);
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Agricultural Productivity, Farm Productivity Growth, US Agriculture, Farm Practices in the US
Estimation of Productivity Growth in the United States Farm Sector, Total Factor Productivity and Farm Output Input in the United States
|Production_Year||Year of production||string||-|
|Percentage_Total_Output||Total output is defined as gross production leaving the farm, as opposed to real value added.||number||level : Ratiorequired : 1|
|Percentage_All_Livestock_and_Products_Output||Total output of livestock and their products including meat animals, dairy, poultry and eggs etc.||number||level : Ratiorequired : 1|
|Percentage_Meat_Animals_Output||Total meat animal output achieved||number||level : Ratiorequired : 1|
|Percentage_Dairy_Output||Total dairy output achieved||number||level : Ratiorequired : 1|
|Percentage_Poultry_and_Eggs_Output||Total poultry and eggs output achieved||number||level : Ratiorequired : 1|
|Percentage_Total_Crops_Output||Total crops output achieved including all food grains, feed, oil, vegetables and melons, fruits and nuts crops etc||number||level : Ratiorequired : 1|
|Percentage_Food_Grain_Crops_Output||Total crops output achieved||number||level : Ratiorequired : 1|
|Percentage_Feed_Crops_Output||Total feed crops output achieved||number||level : Ratiorequired : 1|
|Percentage_Oil_Crops_Output||Total oil crops output achieved||number||level : Ratiorequired : 1|
|Percentage_Vegetables_and_Melons_Crops_Output||Total vegetables and melons crops output achieved||number||level : Ratiorequired : 1|
|Percentage_Fruits_and_Nuts_Crops_Output||Total fruits and nuts crops output achieved||number||level : Ratiorequired : 1|
|Percentage_Miscellaneous_Crops_Output||Output from the miscellaneous crops||number||level : Ratiorequired : 1|
|Percentage_Farm_Related_Output||Gross farm related output achieved||number||level : Ratiorequired : 1|
|Percentage_Total_Farm_Related_Input||Fram related input||number||level : Ratiorequired : 1|
|Percentage_Total_Capital_Input||sum of the capital input applied||number||level : Ratiorequired : 1|
|Percentage_Durable_Equipment_Capital_Input||Capital input of durable equipments||number||level : Ratiorequired : 1|
|Percentage_Service_Buildings_Capital_Input||Capital input of service buildings||number||level : Ratiorequired : 1|
|Percentage_Land_Capital_Input||Capital input of the agricultural land||number||level : Ratiorequired : 1|
|Percentage_Inventories_Capital_Input||Capital input of the inventories||number||level : Ratiorequired : 1|
|Percentage_Total_Labor_Input||Total input given by the labor||number||level : Ratiorequired : 1|
|Percentage_Hired_Labor_Input||Input given by the hired labor||number||level : Ratiorequired : 1|
|Percentage_Self_Employed_and_Unpaid_Family_Labor_Input||Input given by self-employed and unpaid family labor||number||level : Ratiorequired : 1|
|Percentage_Total_Intermediate_Goods_Input||Input given by intermediate goods, including feed, seed, energy, fertilizer, lime and pesticide. Intermediate goods produced and consumed within the farm are self-canceling transactions and, therefore, do not enter either output or input accounts.||number||level : Ratiorequired : 1|
|Percentage_Feed_and_Seed_Intermediate_Goods_Input||Input given by feed and seed||number||level : Ratiorequired : 1|
|Percentage_Energy_Intermediate_Goods_Input||Farm input contributed by energy utilized||number||level : Ratiorequired : 1|
|Percentage_Fertilizer_and_Lime_Intermediate_Goods_Input||Farm input contributed by lime and fertilizer||number||level : Ratiorequired : 1|
|Percentage_Pesticides_Intermediate_Goods_Input||Farm input contributed by pesticides||number||level : Ratiorequired : 1|
|Percentage_Purchased_Services_Intermediate_Goods_Input||Farm input contributed by purchased services||number||level : Ratiorequired : 1|
|Percentage_Miscellaneous_Intermediate_Goods_Input||Farm input contributed by miscellaneous sources.||number||level : Ratiorequired : 1|
|Percentage_Total_Factor_Productivity||Total Factor Productivity (TFP) is the relationship between the growth rates of multiple outputs to the cost-share weighted growth rates of labor, capital, and intermediate inputs||number||level : Ratiorequired : 1|
|Production Year||Percentage Total Output||Percentage All Livestock and Products Output||Percentage Meat Animals Output||Percentage Dairy Output||Percentage Poultry and Eggs Output||Percentage Total Crops Output||Percentage Food Grain Crops Output||Percentage Feed Crops Output||Percentage Oil Crops Output||Percentage Vegetables and Melons Crops Output||Percentage Fruits and Nuts Crops Output||Percentage Miscellaneous Crops Output||Percentage Farm Related Output||Percentage Total Farm Related Input||Percentage Total Capital Input||Percentage Durable Equipment Capital Input||Percentage Service Buildings Capital Input||Percentage Land Capital Input||Percentage Inventories Capital Input||Percentage Total Labor Input||Percentage Hired Labor Input||Percentage Self Employed and Unpaid Family Labor Input||Percentage Total Intermediate Goods Input||Percentage Feed and Seed Intermediate Goods Input||Percentage Energy Intermediate Goods Input||Percentage Fertilizer and Lime Intermediate Goods Input||Percentage Pesticides Intermediate Goods Input||Percentage Purchased Services Intermediate Goods Input||Percentage Miscellaneous Intermediate Goods Input||Percentage Total Factor Productivity|