- Human-caused Environmental Destruction
- Natural Disasters
- Humanly Crisis
- Humanitarian Emergency
- Infrastructure Crisis
Complex Humanitarian Emergencies
This dataset shows the Complex Humanitarian Emergencies in different countries.
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Complex Humanitarian Emergency (CHE), type of disaster event that is caused by and results in a complicated set of social, medical, and often political circumstances, usually leading to great human suffering and death and requiring external assistance and aid. Complex humanitarian emergencies (CHEs) are associated with a variety of factors, such as war, poverty, overpopulation, human-caused environmental destruction and change, and natural disasters. The United Nations (UN) considers a CHE to be a crisis involving multiple causes and requiring a broad and integrated response with long-term political and peacekeeping efforts.
The human-made or natural events that cause complex emergencies introduce hazards into populations that are both vulnerable and susceptible to those particular hazards. The event then exceeds the capacity of the society to respond and therefore demands regional or international assistance. Most often, CHEs result from dramatic events leading to a synergy of hazards, which often include infectious diseases; limited access to food, clean water, and housing; violence; and failing health infrastructure and the absence of immunization. Children between 0 and 5 years of age are at particularly high risk in these situations. Relatively minor acute events in the setting of chronic violence, political unrest, and poor health and educational infrastructure can result in significant elevations in illness and death. The majority of deaths from outbreaks of infectious disease occur in less-developed countries that lack adequate public health practices and health infrastructure.
In industrialized countries, CHEs usually result from massive natural disasters, such as intense hurricanes or earthquakes, or from the effects of advanced weaponry on humans and physical infrastructure (e.g., buildings and roads). These societies usually have high baseline levels of health and education but are overwhelmed by the disaster event. Initially, illness and death result from injuries sustained during the acute event. Later, a state of overcapacity or breakdown of the health infrastructure leads to suffering and death from the complications of untreated chronic diseases, such as diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, and undernutrition. Aging populations are especially vulnerable to disruptions in care that occur during this phase. Dealing with psychological trauma is a major component of the recovery phase from these events.
CHEs demand a complex multimodal response. Responding UN agencies, governments, and nongovernmental organizations must work to rapidly assess the needs of the affected population and meet those specific needs. Organizations maintain Web sites and staff to assess needs and coordinate these multifaceted efforts.
In CHEs, infrastructural and logistical coordination are no less important than financial, material, and human resource support. The response must simultaneously address the immediate effects and the underlying causes of the emergency. Many organizations also include development and sustainability in their goals for disaster response.
The resilience of a population to the effects of a complex emergency has many social, cultural, and political determinants. Although a CHE may not be entirely preventable, its impacts may be reduced by resolving underlying insecurity in the determinants of health before an acute event. Mitigation of disease and death can be achieved by a robust emergency infrastructure and detailed emergency planning.
About this Dataset
John Snow Labs; Center for Disaster Philanthropy;
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Humanly Crisis, Humanitarian Emergency, Infrastructure Crisis, Refugees
Human-caused Environmental Destruction, Natural Disasters
|Crisis||Name of the Crisis||string||-|
|Detail||Details of the crisis||string||-|
|Sudan Humanitarian Crisis||Sudanâs complex humanitarian crisis is rooted in decades of internal conflict, political instability, extreme weather events and poor economic conditions that have contributed to widespread food insecurity, malnutrition and a lack of basic services, especially health services. While these issues have resulted in millions of internally displaced Sudanese, Sudan also hosts refugees from South Sudan and Ethiopia. In their Sudan Humanitarian Snapshot released on April 5, the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) said, âLocalized conflict and insecurity continue to displace thousands of people and disrupt lives in parts of Sudan.â On April 5, 2023, Sudanâs military leaders and a coalition of civilian groups postponed the signing of a deal that was to begin a political transition to democracy. Instead, fighting and protests increased. The conflict has shifted from a military-civilian battle to one between âthe countryâs de facto leader, General Abdel Fattah al-Burhane, head of the army and author of the October 25, 2021 coup, and his second in command, General Mohamed Hamdane Daglo, known as âHemedti,â who heads the ex-militiamen of the Darfur war and is now grouped into the RSF.â The Rapid Support Forces (RSF) origins are rooted in the Janjaweed militia that carried out ethnic cleansing in Darfur. The RSF seems to be hiding in urban areas, so much of the conflict is happening in densely populated areas and is impacting civilians. Martin Griffiths, Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator, said on April 30 that two weeks after the fighting began, âthe humanitarian situation is reaching breaking point.â Many countries have called for a ceasefire and are trying to extract their citizens. Despite saying they would extend a truce another three days, the warring sides intensified their fighting on May 1 with airstrikes hitting Sudanâs capital, Khartoum. According to a top UN official, Sudanâs warring generals have agreed to send representatives for negotiations. As of May 5, this has not yet happened.|
|Refugees, Asylum Seekers and the US||The U.S. has long been a destination for people seeking asylum. There are more than 41 million immigrants in the U.S. However, the country is not always welcoming to them. Federal and state legislation and actions increasingly make it difficult for asylum seekers and migrants to enter the country, and the United States spends almost $2 billion annually detaining immigrants. With the end of Title 42 legislation (see below), there is expected to be a huge surge of claimants at all borders. Those seeking asylum in 2023 are fleeing complex humanitarian emergencies, including Venezuela, the war in Ukraine, the Northern Triangle of Central America and Haiti. These contexts have made meeting basic survival needs a daily struggle for much of the population. Many face persecution in their country of origin, particularly those already marginalized, leading people to seek a better life and protection for themselves and their families. Many people use the words refugee, asylum seeker (sometimes called an asylee) and migrant interchangeably, but they are all different groups with different legal protections and rights.|
|Syria Humanitarian Crisis||The Syrian complex humanitarian emergency is characterized by more than 10 years of ongoing hostilities and their long-term effects, including large-scale internal and cross-border displacement, widespread destruction of civilian infrastructure and significant violations of international humanitarian law. In 2023, 15.3 million people need humanitarian assistance. Syria remains one of the largest humanitarian responses in the world. According to the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA), localized hostilities, the economic crisis, the water crisis and public health emergencies, including cholera and climate-related situations, are expected to remain the main drivers of humanitarian need. UN Humanitarian Affairs Coordinator, Martin Griffiths, reported in December 2022 that the vast majority of Syrian families are either struggling or unable to meet their basic needs. On Feb. 6, 2023, a magnitude 7.8 earthquake occurred in southern Turkey near the northern border of Syria. This quake was followed approximately nine hours later by a magnitude 7.5 earthquake located around 59 miles (95 kilometers) to the southwest. According to ACAPS, new earthquakes are among the worst-case scenarios for the region because they could impact humanitarian needs and the ability to meet them. Damaged buildings are at high risk of collapse when additional earthquakes strike, and survivors may continue to experience ongoing fear while also beginning to deal with lasting trauma. On Feb. 14, the UN and humanitarian partners launched an earthquake Flash Appeal that requests $397.6 million to reach 4.9 million people across Syria between February and May 2023. See CDPâs 2023 Turkey-Syria Earthquake disaster profile for more. On Jan. 9, the United Nations (UN) Security Council unanimously renewed an essential cross-border operation at Bab Al-Hawa for another six months that delivers humanitarian assistance to millions of people in northwest Syria, which is outside government control. Syria and Russia want humanitarians to deliver aid internally across conflict lines, but the UN says such âcrosslineâ operations cannot match cross-border operations from Turkey into northwest Syria in terms of size and scope. In the aftermath of the Feb. 6 earthquake, humanitarian access from Turkey to northwest Syria grew with the opening of Bal Al-Salam and Al Raâee border crossings on Feb. 14 for an initial period of three months. On May 13, the Syrian government agreed to extend by another three months the use of the two border crossings.|
|Horn of Africa Hunger Crisis||According to the World Food Programme (WFP), âA record 349 million people across 79 countries are facing acute food insecurity â up from 287 million in 2021. More than 900,000 people worldwide are fighting to survive in famine-like conditions.â In 2023, it is likely there will not be enough food in the system, which will push global food prices higher. Russiaâs invasion of Ukraine contributes to the rise in hunger with less wealthy countries particularly vulnerable, including those in the Horn of Africa. After five consecutive below-average rains, the humanitarian crisis in the Horn of Africa is expanding and deepening. According to WFP, âRegardless of how the 2023 rains perform, extremely high humanitarian needs will persist through 2023 while a full recovery from a drought of this magnitude will take years.â As of the end of December 2022, the drought had left around 23 million people severely food insecure across the region. A forecast from the Climate Hazard Center warned that the region is likely headed for a sixth poor rainy season this spring, from March to May 2023. The IGAD Climate Prediction and Applications Centre says below-normal rainfall is expected in most parts of the region over the next three months, which âwould be an unprecedented sixth poor season for the worst hit countries â Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia.â Somalia is among the worst affected countries in the Horn of Africa. People are already dying of hunger in Somalia. In addition to the worsening drought, increased food prices and conflict, displacement is another major factor in pushing people into famine in Somalia. Humanitarians fear donor fatigue compounded by multiple crises worldwide could reduce the level of funds Somalia receives in 2023. The United Nations (UN) and non-government organizations (NGOs) have issued warnings of catastrophic hunger levels for more than a year, but the warnings have been largely overlooked. The explosion in needs is outpacing the resources available. On Nov. 7, 2022, UN agencies and partners issued a joint statement calling for immediate action to prevent famine in the Horn of Africa. The statement declared that a humanitarian catastrophe is occurring, and more funds are required to save lives. Famine has become a point of political contention and is deeply divisive in Somalia. Famine is a highly technical classification that meets specific criteria. Famine is a complex problem, but much can be done before hunger becomes a catastrophic crisis, including early action to prevent food insecurity and famine. While short-term relief is needed to save lives, protecting peopleâs livelihoods and restoring their dignity are also required to help avoid future famines.|
|Ukraine Humanitarian Crisis||The Center for Disaster Philanthropyâs (CDP) response to this crisis is focused on humanitarian needs that arise, particularly among internally displaced peoples (IDPs) and refugees. We are not looking at the conflict itself except for how it affects population movement and humanitarian needs. To that end, this profile is not providing detailed updates about the status of the war as we believe that is better done by news media. On Feb. 6, 2023, United Nations (UN) humanitarian chief Martin Griffithsâ told the UN Security Council, âOn the eve of this horrific one-year milestone â which comes on top of the previous eight years of conflict â we still have much to do. I call on us all to push forward with renewed vigour to give the people of Ukraine the peace and support they need and deserve.â According to the Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project (ACLED), during the week of April 15, 2023, âRussian forces continued to target civilian infrastructure with shelling, missile attacks, and drone strikes, killing over a dozen civilians in the Chernihiv, Donetsk, Kherson, Luhansk, Mykolaiv, Sumy, and Zaporizhia regions.â Missile strikes across Ukraine are expected to continue. Recent civilian casualties included 23 people killed in an attack on apartments in the central city of Uman far from the frontline. On May 16, the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) said intensified hostilities are keeping humanitarian needs high in the front-line Lymanska hromada of Donetska oblast in the east of Ukraine. Medical services are decimated, in-person education was suspended, connectivity was disrupted and there was limited food stock in shops. In 2023, 17.6 million people in Ukraine require humanitarian assistance, 45% of whom are women, 23% are children and 15% are people with disabilities. Approximately 40% of Ukraineâs population is now in need of humanitarian assistance and protection. The 2023 Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) for Ukraine calls for $3.9 billion to reach 11.1 million people with food, health care, cash and other life-saving assistance. The humanitarian situation in Ukraine deteriorated drastically and rapidly in 2022. Millions of Ukrainians endured intense hostilities, which killed and injured thousands of civilians, forced millions from their homes, and destroyed livelihoods. Civilian infrastructure, including aid facilities, continues to be attacked. Some Ukrainian organizations struggle to secure much-needed financial support. Local humanitarian leaders and organizations know their community needs best and building trust with these organizations is key. CDPâs initial round of grants from its Ukraine Humanitarian Crisis Recovery Fund includes investments in Ukrainian organizations.|
|Afghanistan Humanitarian Crisis||The 2023 Afghanistan Humanitarian Needs Overview (HNO) says Afghanistan is facing an unprecedented humanitarian crisis âwith a very real risk of systemic collapse and human catastrophe.â While in past years humanitarian needs have been driven mainly by conflict, the key drivers of humanitarian need in 2023 include drought, climate change, protection threats (particularly for women and girls) and the economic crisis.Two-thirds of the countryâs population will need humanitarian assistance in 2023. The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) estimates that a record 28.3 million people will need humanitarian and protection assistance in 2023, up from 24.4 million in 2022 and 18.4 million in 2021. The 2023 Afghanistan Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) requests $4.6 billion to reach 23.7 million people. There are signs that financial support is not keeping pace with the enormous needs. The World Food Programme (WFP) said that due to funding constraints, at least four million people would receive just half of what they need to get by in March 2023. An estimated 95% of Afghans are not getting enough to eat, with that figure rising to nearly 100% in female-headed households. Ramiz Alakbarov, the UN Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator in Afghanistan, said on March 15 that âthe fate of an entire generation of Afghans is at stake.â In addition to the political, social and economic shocks from conflict and the withdrawal of international forces, disaster risk is becoming an increasing driver of underlying need. A national drought was officially declared in June 2021 and is the worst in more than 30 years. In eastern Afghanistan, flash floods in late August 2022 killed at least 20 people in Logar province, with thousands of homes and agricultural land damaged. A 5.9 magnitude earthquake hit eastern Afghanistan on June 22, 2022, killing more than 1,000 people and leaving 362,000 in need of humanitarian assistance. The scale and severity of the issues confronting Afghanistan prompted the UN Security Council to adopt a resolution on March 16, 2023, calling for independent recommendations on how a united international community should address the challenges, including the Talibanâs curtailment of education and work for women and girls, terrorism, and the countryâs dire humanitarian and economic situation.|
|Ethiopia Humanitarian Crisis||Ethiopia is Africa's oldest independent country and its second-most populous. The country made important development gains in last decade in education, health and food security, and economic growth. However, the combination of armed conflict, climate shocks, disease outbreaks and the socioeconomic impacts of COVID-19 have led to the deterioration in humanitarian conditions in the country. The 2023 Ethiopia Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) seeks $3.99 billion to target 20.1 million people across the country, including an estimated 4.6 million internally displaced people (IDPs). Ethiopia is one of the most drought-prone countries in the world, and the severe drought that began in late 2020 has continued into 2023 with the country enduring five failed rainy seasons. The 2023 HRP aims to reach an estimated 13 million people for humanitarian response in drought-affected areas. According to the 2023 HRP, âThe situation is getting more critical with each failed rainy season and has severely impacted pastoralist and agro-pastoralist communities, particularly in the eastern and southern parts of the country, aggravating food insecurity, malnutrition, access to water and a worsening health situation with an increase of disease outbreaks.â In their April 4, 2023, Ethiopia Drought Snapshot, the UN Coordination for Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) said, âThe humanitarian context in drought-affected areas is quickly changing, and the gravity of the situation today has already surpassed the ongoing responses, and the urgency to scale up the response is high.â Some parts of Ethiopia are affected by both drought and conflict simultaneously, including Oromia and Somali regions. A peace deal signed by the Ethiopian government and the Tigray Peopleâs Liberation Front in November 2022 ended a two-year war that displaced millions and created dire humanitarian conditions in the Tigray region. In contrast to drought, heavy rains and flash floods in 2023 in Oromia, Somali and Afar regions âhave negatively affected those communities with the destruction of shelters used by internally displaced persons (IDPs), loss of cattle and a risk in an increase in the already rapidly spreading cholera outbreak.â|
|South Sudan Humanitarian Crisis||Twelve years after gaining independence, people in South Sudan continue to face deteriorating humanitarian conditions. Conflict, public health challenges, climatic and economic shocks, and poor governance have severely affected peopleâs livelihoods and hindered access to essential services. Poverty is ubiquitous, exacerbated by these factors. The most recent household survey was conducted in 2016-2017 and revealed that 67.3% of South Sudanâs population lived below the international poverty line. The Human Development Index, launched in 1990 to look beyond gross domestic product as a measure of well-being, ranks South Sudan last globally. South Sudanâs life expectancy is 55, people spend just 5.5 years in school on average and earn $768 a year. A sign of the lack of development in South Sudan is the limited infrastructure which creates additional challenges. In 2020, the World Bank reported just 7.2% of the population in South Sudan has access to electricity. About 2% of South Sudanâs roads are paved, making many of them inaccessible during the rainy season, which prevents children from getting to school, makes reaching healthcare difficult, and complicates the delivery of food and other supplies. In 2023, 9.4 million people will be in need of humanitarian assistance, 76% of South Sudanâs population, and an increase of 500,000 people from 2022. Sara Beysolow Nyanti, the Humanitarian Coordinator in South Sudan, said in November 2022, âSomething has to change in South Sudan because the number of people in need continues to rise every year and the resources continue to decrease.â Conflict and insecurity, fueled by inter-communal violence, crime and wide-scale impunity, continue to be among the main drivers of humanitarian needs in South Sudan. Fighting erupted in neighboring Sudan in mid-April 2023 between the Sudanese Armed Forces and Rapid Support Forces. The conflict has displaced thousands within Sudan and forced thousands more to flee to South Sudan. Sudanâs conflict will exacerbate the humanitarian situation in South Sudan. For more, see our Sudan Humanitarian Crisis disaster profile.|
|Venezuelan Humanitarian and Refugee Crisis||Venezuela has been in a severe socio-political and economic crisis for several years. With an exodus of more than 7.24 million people (as of March 28, 2023), the refugee crisis in Venezuela is one of the largest in the world. Even early in the crisis (2018), when only one million had fled, it was deemed the largest-ever refugee crisis in Latin America. Nearly 6.1 million of the refugees are located in Latin America and the Caribbean. Those who fled Venezuela continue to âface challenges accessing food, housing, and stable jobsâ in their new countries of residence. As a result of these challenges, some refugees choose to continue their migration to other countries, and some have chosen to return to Venezuela. According to UNHCR (The UN Refugee Agency), this has been âmotivated mainly by the lack of integration opportunities and cases of intolerance and xenophobia, as well as the desire for family reunification and the perception of an improving economic outlook in Venezuela. According to Venezuelaâs Ministry of Foreign Affairs, more than 300,000 nationals have returned to the country since September 2020. Nevertheless, those returning face difficulties in accessing jobs, social services, and housing.â Decades of government mismanagement have created an economic, political and humanitarian crisis with a reduced quality of life similar to those experienced in countries affected by wars or conflicts. There are many significant and urgent needs within Venezuela and host countries: all underfunded. Within Venezuela, approximately 25% of the population requires humanitarian assistance. Cynthia Arnson, director of the Wilson Centerâs Latin American program, told PBS in January 2022, âLife is very difficult. The poverty rate is over 95 percent. About 75 percent of people live in extreme poverty. There are shortages of food, of drinking water, of medicines. Inflation last year was down to 700 percent. Itâs less than it was at 3,000 percent the year before. But inflation is still very, very high.â Of the 7.24 million people who left Venezuela as of March 2023, more than 84% (nearly 6.1 million) have settled in just 17 countries in the Caribbean and Latin America. The majority are in other South American countries, including Colombia (2.48 million), Peru (1.51 million), Ecuador (502,200), Chile (444,400) and Brazil (426,000). There is movement in both directions across the borders, however, the number who have left is in the millions, and the number who have returned is around 300,000. According to the Refugee and Migrant Needs Analysis released in October 2022: Nearly three-quarters of the migrants and refugees in Latin America and the Caribbean are âpeople in need (PIN).â The PIN percentage varies by country. It is the highest (88.3%) in the Dominican Republic, where 101,800 of the 115,300 people need assistance. Other countries with high needs are Trinidad and Tobago (86.3%), Bolivia (82.3%), Brazil (81.6%) and Colombia (80.3%). Even the country with the lowest PIN percentage â Panama â has over half the population in need at 50.2%. At least 85% of children are identified as people in need, compared to 70% of adults. Protection is the highest area of need (69.2%), followed by integration (64.9%), health (57.1%), food security (53%) and shelter (52.9%). Education is listed at 46.7%, which seems to make it a lower area of need, but since it only applies to children, it is actually one of the highest areas of need.|
|Yemen Humanitarian Crisis||Since 2015, a persistent conflict between the Internationally Recognized Government of Yemen (IRG), with support from the Saudi-led coalition, and the de-facto authority (DFA) (also known as the Houthis) that is aligned with Iran, has resulted in a severe economic and humanitarian crisis. The conflicting parties agreed to a United Nations (UN)-mediated truce on April 2, 2022, which expired on Oct. 2, 2022. More than three months after the truce expired, the UN envoy for Yemen said, âwe are witnessing a potential step changeâ in the conflictâs trajectory though the situation remained âcomplex and fluid.â According to the Center for Strategic and International Studies, âWhile not perfect, the truce enabled a level of stabilization within Yemen and provided a glimpse of a quieter future. Substantial improvements in humanitarian conditions, however, depend on continued international support and the willingness of the parties to facilitate humanitarian access and commit to a political solution.â Since the end of the truce, the countryâs fighting has largely slowed. However, renewed fighting in March 2023 killed at least 16. A China-brokered deal between Iran and Saudi Arabia signed on March 10 renewed diplomatic ties between the countries and raised hopes for an end to the eight-year conflict that has caused at least 377,000 deaths and sparked a humanitarian crisis. Signs of progress since the March 10 deal include the Saudi-led coalition lifting eight-year-old restrictions on imports bound for Yemenâs southern ports and plans for the Saudi-Omani delegation to hold ceasefire talks with Yemenâs Houthis in Sanaa. On March 22, 2023, 141 non-government organizations issued an open letter to the Yemeni parties to the conflict calling for the truce to be renewed and lasting peace to be built. On May 17, UN Special Envoy Hans Grundberg debriefed the UN Security Council on the situation in Yemen. Grundberg reported that although military incidents continue to occur, hostility levels are significantly lower than before the truce. He also said, âBut the fragility of the military situation, the dire state of the economy and the daily challenges facing the Yemeni people, provide us with constant reminders of why a more comprehensive agreement between the parties is so vital.â Saudi officials are eager to demonstrate their increased investments in reconstruction, however, human rights groups continue to call for accountability for their role in the conflict, and humanitarians say the Saudis have large-scale and long-term obligations for recovery. In 2023, an estimated 21.6 million people in Yemen will need humanitarian assistance. The 2023 Humanitarian Response Plan for Yemen (HRP) requires $4.3 billion to reach the 17.3 million most vulnerable people in need of humanitarian support. People in Yemen, including internally displaced persons (IDPs) and those attempting to return, Muhamasheen, persons with disabilities, and migrants and refugees, face multiple vulnerabilities. The 2023 HRP has three strategic objectives focusing on âlife-saving activities, resilience contributing to durable solutions and the centrality of protection.â|